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1961 IMO Problems

Day I

Problem 1

(Hungary) Solve the system of equations: $\begin{matrix} \quad x + y + z \!\!\! &= a \; \, \\ x^2 +y^2+z^2 \!\!\! &=b^2 \\ \qquad \qquad xy \!\!\! &= z^2 \end{matrix}$

where $a$ and $b$ are constants. Give the conditions that $a$ and $b$ must satisfy so that $x, y, z$ (the solutions of the system) are distinct positive numbers.

Problem 2

Let a,b, and c be the lengths of a triangle whose area is S. Prove that $a^2 + b^2 + c^2 \ge 4S\sqrt{3}$

In what case does equality hold?

Problem 3

Solve the equation $\cos^n{x} - \sin^n{x} = 1$

where n is a given positive integer.

Day 2

Problem 4

In the interior of triangle $ABC$ a point P is given. Let $Q_1,Q_2,Q_3$ be the intersections of $PP_1, PP_2,PP_3$ with the opposing edges of triangle $ABC$. Prove that among the ratios $\frac{PP_1}{PQ_1},\frac{PP_2}{PQ_2},\frac{PP_3}{PQ_3}$ there exists one not larger than 2 and one not smaller than 2.