# Difference between revisions of "1965 IMO Problems/Problem 4"

(Created page with '== Problem == Find all sets of four real numbers <math>x_1</math>, <math>x_2</math>, <math>x_3</math>, <math>x_4</math> such that the sum of any one and the product of the other …') |
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Find all sets of four real numbers <math>x_1</math>, <math>x_2</math>, <math>x_3</math>, <math>x_4</math> such that the sum of any one and the product of the other three is equal to <math>2</math>. | Find all sets of four real numbers <math>x_1</math>, <math>x_2</math>, <math>x_3</math>, <math>x_4</math> such that the sum of any one and the product of the other three is equal to <math>2</math>. | ||

− | == Solution == | + | == Solution == |

− | {{solution}} | + | Let <math>P = x_1x_2x_3x_4</math> be the product of the four real numbers. |

+ | |||

+ | Then, for <math>i = 1,2,3,4</math> we have: <math>x_i + \prod_{j \neq i}x_j = 2</math>. | ||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | Multiplying by <math>x_i</math> yields: | ||

+ | |||

+ | <math>x^2_i + P = 2x_i \Longleftrightarrow x^2_i-2x_i+1 = (x_i-1)^2 = 1-P \Longleftrightarrow x_i = 1 \pm t</math> where <math>t = \pm \sqrt{1-P} \in \mathbb{R}</math>. | ||

+ | |||

+ | If <math>t=0</math>, then we have <math>(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4)=(1,1,1,1)</math> which is a solution. | ||

+ | |||

+ | So assume that <math>t \neq 0</math>. WLOG, let at least two of <math>x_i</math> equal <math>1+t</math>, and <math>x_1 \ge x_2 \ge x_3 \ge x_4</math> OR <math>x_1 \le x_2 \le x_3 \le x_4</math>. | ||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | Case I: <math>x_1 = x_2 = x_3 = x_4 = 1+t</math> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Then we have: | ||

+ | |||

+ | <math>(1+t)+(1+t)^3 = 2 \Longleftrightarrow t^3+3t^2+4t = 0 \Longleftrightarrow t(t^2+3t+4) = 0</math> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Which has no non-zero solutions for <math>t</math>. | ||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | Case II: <math>x_1 = x_2 = x_3 = 1+t</math> AND <math>x_4 = 1-t</math> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Then we have: | ||

+ | |||

+ | <math>(1-t)+(1+t)^3 = 2 \Longleftrightarrow t^3+3t^2+2t = 0</math> <math>\Longleftrightarrow t(t+1)(t+2) = 0 \Longleftrightarrow t \in \{0,-1,-2\}</math> | ||

+ | |||

+ | AND | ||

+ | |||

+ | <math>(1+t)+(1-t)(1+t)^2 = 2 (1+t)+(1-t)(1+t)^2 = 2 -t^3-t^2+2t = 0</math> <math>\Longleftrightarrow -t(t-1)(t+2) = 0 \Longleftrightarrow t \in \{0,1,-2\}</math> | ||

+ | |||

+ | So, we have <math>t = -2</math> as the only non-zero solution, and thus, <math>(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4) = (-1,-1,-1,3)</math> and all permutations are solutions. | ||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | Case III: <math>x_1 = x_2 = 1+t</math> AND <math>x_3 = x_4 = 1-t</math> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Then we have: | ||

+ | |||

+ | <math>(1-t)+(1-t)(1+t)^2 = 2 \Longleftrightarrow -t^3-t^2 = 0</math> <math>\Longleftrightarrow -t^2(t+1) = 0 \Longleftrightarrow t \in \{0,-1\}</math> | ||

+ | |||

+ | AND | ||

+ | |||

+ | <math>(1+t)+(1+t)(1-t)^2 = 2 \Longleftrightarrow t^3-t^2 = 0</math> <math>\Longleftrightarrow t^2(t-1) = 0 \Longleftrightarrow t \in \{0,1\}</math> | ||

+ | |||

+ | Thus, there are no non-zero solutions for <math>t</math> in this case. | ||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | Therefore, the solutions are: <math>(1,1,1,1)</math>; <math>(3,-1,-1,-1)</math>; <math>(-1,3,-1,-1)</math>; <math>(-1,-1,3,-1)</math>; <math>(-1,-1,-1,3)</math>. |

## Revision as of 16:52, 16 July 2009

## Problem

Find all sets of four real numbers , , , such that the sum of any one and the product of the other three is equal to .

## Solution

Let be the product of the four real numbers.

Then, for we have: .

Multiplying by yields:

where .

If , then we have which is a solution.

So assume that . WLOG, let at least two of equal , and OR .

Case I:

Then we have:

Which has no non-zero solutions for .

Case II: AND

Then we have:

AND

So, we have as the only non-zero solution, and thus, and all permutations are solutions.

Case III: AND

Then we have:

AND

Thus, there are no non-zero solutions for in this case.

Therefore, the solutions are: ; ; ; ; .