# 1978 USAMO Problems

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Problems from the 1978 USAMO.

## Problem 1

Given that $a,b,c,d,e$ are real numbers such that

$a+b+c+d+e=8$,

$a^2+b^2+c^2+d^2+e^2=16$.

Determine the maximum value of $e$.

## Problem 2

$ABCD$ and $A'B'C'D'$ are square maps of the same region, drawn to different scales and superimposed as shown in the figure. Prove that there is only one point $O$ on the small map that lies directly over point $O'$ of the large map such that $O$ and $O'$ each represent the same place of the country. Also, give a Euclidean construction (straight edge and compass) for $O$.

$[asy] defaultpen(linewidth(0.7)+fontsize(10)); real theta = -100, r = 0.3; pair D2 = (0.3,0.76); string[] lbl = {'A', 'B', 'C', 'D'}; draw(unitsquare); draw(shift(D2)*rotate(theta)*scale(r)*unitsquare); for(int i = 0; i < lbl.length; ++i) { pair Q = dir(135-90*i), P = (.5,.5)+Q/2^.5; label(""+lbl[i]+"'", P, Q); label(""+lbl[i]+"",D2+rotate(theta)*(r*P), rotate(theta)*Q); }[/asy]$

## Problem 3

An integer $n$ will be called good if we can write

$n=a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_k$,

where $a_1,a_2, \ldots, a_k$ are positive integers (not necessarily distinct) satisfying

$\frac{1}{a_1}+\frac{1}{a_2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{a_k}=1$.

Given the information that the integers 33 through 73 are good, prove that every integer $\ge 33$ is good.

## Problem 4

(a) Prove that if the six dihedral (i.e. angles between pairs of faces) of a given tetrahedron are congruent, then the tetrahedron is regular.

(b) Is a tetrahedron necessarily regular if five dihedral angles are congruent?

## Problem 5

Nine mathematicians meet at an international conference and discover that among any three of them, at least two speak a common language. If each of the mathematicians speak at most three languages, prove that there are at least three of the mathematicians who can speak the same language.