1983 AHSME Problems/Problem 29

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A point $P$ lies in the same plane as a given square of side $1$. Let the vertices of the square, taken counterclockwise, be $A, B, C$ and $D$. Also, let the distances from $P$ to $A, B$ and $C$, respectively, be $u, v$ and $w$. What is the greatest distance that $P$ can be from $D$ if $u^2 + v^2 = w^2$?

$\textbf{(A)}\ 1 + \sqrt{2}\qquad \textbf{(B)}\ 2\sqrt{2}\qquad \textbf{(C)}\ 2 + \sqrt{2}\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ 3\sqrt{2}\qquad \textbf{(E)}\ 3+\sqrt{2}$


Place the square in the $xy$-plane with $A$ as the origin, so that $B=(1,0), C=(1,1),$ and $D=(0,1).$ We are given that $PA^2+PB^2=PC^2,$ so

\begin{align*}&(x^2+y^2)+((x-1)^2+y^2)=(x-1)^2+(y-1)^2\\ \Rightarrow \quad &2x^2+2y^2-2x+1=x^2+y^2-2x-2y+2\\ \Rightarrow \quad &x^2+y^2=-2y+1\\ \Rightarrow \quad &x^2+y^2+2y-1=0\\ \Rightarrow \quad &x^2+(y+1)^2=2.\end{align*}

Thus we see that $P$ lies on a circle centered at $(0,-1)$ with radius $\sqrt{2}.$ The farthest point from $D$ on this circle is at the bottom of the circle, at $\left(0, -1-\sqrt{2}\right),$ in which case $PD$ is $1 - \left(-1 - \sqrt{2}\right) = \boxed{\textbf{(C)}\ 2 + \sqrt{2}}.$

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