Difference between revisions of "1983 AHSME Problems/Problem 30"

Problem

Distinct points $A$ and $B$ are on a semicircle with diameter $MN$ and center $C$. The point $P$ is on $CN$ and $\angle CAP = \angle CBP = 10^{\circ}$. If $\stackrel{\frown}{MA} = 40^{\circ}$, then $\stackrel{\frown}{BN}$ equals

$\textbf{(A)}\ 10^{\circ}\qquad \textbf{(B)}\ 15^{\circ}\qquad \textbf{(C)}\ 20^{\circ}\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ 25^{\circ}\qquad \textbf{(E)}\ 30^{\circ}$

Solution

Since $\angle CAP = \angle CBP = 10^\circ$, quadrilateral $ABPC$ is cyclic (as shown below) by the converse of the theorem "angles inscribed in the same arc are equal".

$[asy] import geometry; import graph; unitsize(2 cm); pair A, B, C, M, N, P; M = (-1,0); N = (1,0); C = (0,0); A = dir(140); B = dir(20); P = extension(A, A + rotate(10)*(C - A), B, B + rotate(10)*(C - B)); draw(M--N); draw(arc(C,1,0,180)); draw(A--C--B); draw(A--P--B); draw(A--B); draw(circumcircle(A,B,C),dashed); label("A", A, W); label("B", B, E); label("C", C, S); label("M", M, SW); label("N", N, SE); label("P", P, S); [/asy]$

Since $\angle ACM = 40^\circ$, $\angle ACP = 140^\circ$, so, using the fact that opposite angles in a cyclic quadrilateral sum to $180^{\circ}$, we have $\angle ABP = 40^\circ$. Hence $\angle ABC = \angle ABP - \angle CBP = 40^ \circ - 10^\circ = 30^\circ$.

Since $CA = CB$, triangle $ABC$ is isosceles, with $\angle BAC = \angle ABC = 30^\circ$. Now, $\angle BAP = \angle BAC - \angle CAP = 30^\circ - 10^\circ = 20^\circ$. Finally, again using the fact that angles inscribed in the same arc are equal, we have $\angle BCP = \angle BAP = \boxed{\textbf{(C)}\ 20^{\circ}}$.