Difference between revisions of "1984 USAMO Problems/Problem 1"

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In the polynomial <math>x^4 - 18x^3 + kx^2 + 200x - 1984 = 0</math>, the product of <math>2</math> of its roots is <math>- 32</math>. Find <math>k</math>.
 
In the polynomial <math>x^4 - 18x^3 + kx^2 + 200x - 1984 = 0</math>, the product of <math>2</math> of its roots is <math>- 32</math>. Find <math>k</math>.
  
==Solution==
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=== Solution 1 ===
  
Let the four roots be a, b, c, and d, so that ab=-32. From here we show two methods; the second is more slick, but harder to see.
 
  
Solution #1
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Using Vieta's formulas, we have:
  
Using Vieta's formulas, we have: <cmath> \begin{align*}a+b+c+d &= 18,\\ ab+ac+ad+bc+bd+cd &= k,\\ abc+abd+acd+bcd &=-200,\\ abcd &=-1984.\\ \end{align*} </cmath>
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<cmath>\begin{align*}a+b+c+d &= 18,\\ ab+ac+ad+bc+bd+cd &= k,\\ abc+abd+acd+bcd &=-200,\\ abcd &=-1984.\\ \end{align*}</cmath>  
  
  From the last of these equations, we see that <math>cd = \frac{abcd}{ab} = \frac{-1984}{-32} = 62</math>. Thus, the second equation becomes <math>-32+ac+ad+bc+bd+62=k</math>, and so <math>ac+ad+bc+bd=k-30</math>. The key insight is now to factor the left-hand side as a product of two binomials: <math>(a+b)(c+d)=k-30</math>, so that we now only need to determine <math>a+b</math> and <math>c+d</math> rather than all four of <math>a,b,c,d</math>.  
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From the last of these equations, we see that <math>cd = \frac{abcd}{ab} = \frac{-1984}{-32} = 62</math>. Thus, the second equation becomes <math>-32+ac+ad+bc+bd+62=k</math>, and so <math>ac+ad+bc+bd=k-30</math>. The key insight is now to factor the left-hand side as a product of two binomials: <math>(a+b)(c+d)=k-30</math>, so that we now only need to determine <math>a+b</math> and <math>c+d</math> rather than all four of <math>a,b,c,d</math>.  
  
Let <math>p=a+b</math> and <math>q=c+d</math>. Plugging our known values for <math>ab</math> and <math>cd</math> into the third Vieta equation, <math>-200 = abc+abd + acd + bcd = ab(c+d) + cd(a+b)</math>, we have <math>-200 = -32(c+d) + 62(a+b) = 62p-32q</math>. Moreover, the first Vieta equation, a+b+c+d=18, gives p+q=18. Thus we have two linear equations in p and q, which we solve to obtain p=4 and q=14.  
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Let <math>p=a+b</math> and <math>q=c+d</math>. Plugging our known values for <math>ab</math> and <math>cd</math> into the third Vieta equation, <math>-200 = abc+abd + acd + bcd = ab(c+d) + cd(a+b)</math>, we have <math>-200 = -32(c+d) + 62(a+b) = 62p-32q</math>. Moreover, the first Vieta equation, <math>a+b+c+d=18</math>, gives <math>p+q=18</math>. Thus we have two linear equations in <math>p</math> and <math>q</math>, which we solve to obtain <math>p=4</math> and <math>q=14</math>.  
  
Therefore, we have (\underbrace{a+b}_4)(\underbrace{c+d}_{14}) = k-30, yielding k=4\cdot 14+30 = \boxed{86}.  
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Therefore, we have <math>(\underbrace{a+b}_4)(\underbrace{c+d}_{14}) = k-30</math>, yielding <math>k=4\cdot 14+30 = \boxed{86}</math>.
  
Solution #2 (sketch)
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=== Solution 2 ===
  
We start as before: ab=-32 and cd=62. We now observe that a and b must be the roots of a quadratic, x^2+rx-32, where r is a constant (secretly, r is just -(a+b)=-p from Solution #1). Similarly, c and d must be the roots of a quadratic x^2+sx+62.  
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We start as before: <math>ab=-32</math> and <math>cd=62</math>. We now observe that a and b must be the roots of a quadratic, <math>x^2+rx-32</math>, where r is a constant (secretly, r is just -(a+b)=-p from Solution #1). Similarly, c and d must be the roots of a quadratic <math>x^2+sx+62</math>.  
  
Now \begin{align*} x^4 - 18x^3 + kx^2 + 200x - 1984 &= (x^2 + rx - 32)(x^2 + sx + 62) <br /> & = x^4 + (r + s)x^3 + (62 - 32 ... Equating the coefficients of x^3 and x with their known values, we are left with essentially the same linear equations as in Solution #1, which we solve in the same way. Then we compute the coefficient of x^2 and get k=\boxed{86}.
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Now  
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<cmath> \begin{align*}x^4-18x^3+kx^2+200x-1984 =& (x^2+rx-32)(x^2+sx+62)\\  =& x^4+(r+s)x^3+(62-32+rs)x^2\\
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&+(62s-32r)x-1984.\end{align*} </cmath>
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Equating the coefficients of <math>x^3</math> and <math>x</math> with their known values, we are left with essentially the same linear equations as in Solution #1, which we solve in the same way. Then we compute the coefficient of <math>x^2</math> and get <math>k=\boxed{86}.</math>
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== Video Solution ==
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https://youtu.be/5QdPQ3__a7I?t=589
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~ pi_is_3.14
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==

Latest revision as of 22:46, 17 January 2021

Problem

In the polynomial $x^4 - 18x^3 + kx^2 + 200x - 1984 = 0$, the product of $2$ of its roots is $- 32$. Find $k$.

Solution 1

Using Vieta's formulas, we have:

\begin{align*}a+b+c+d &= 18,\\ ab+ac+ad+bc+bd+cd &= k,\\ abc+abd+acd+bcd &=-200,\\ abcd &=-1984.\\ \end{align*}


From the last of these equations, we see that $cd = \frac{abcd}{ab} = \frac{-1984}{-32} = 62$. Thus, the second equation becomes $-32+ac+ad+bc+bd+62=k$, and so $ac+ad+bc+bd=k-30$. The key insight is now to factor the left-hand side as a product of two binomials: $(a+b)(c+d)=k-30$, so that we now only need to determine $a+b$ and $c+d$ rather than all four of $a,b,c,d$.

Let $p=a+b$ and $q=c+d$. Plugging our known values for $ab$ and $cd$ into the third Vieta equation, $-200 = abc+abd + acd + bcd = ab(c+d) + cd(a+b)$, we have $-200 = -32(c+d) + 62(a+b) = 62p-32q$. Moreover, the first Vieta equation, $a+b+c+d=18$, gives $p+q=18$. Thus we have two linear equations in $p$ and $q$, which we solve to obtain $p=4$ and $q=14$.

Therefore, we have $(\underbrace{a+b}_4)(\underbrace{c+d}_{14}) = k-30$, yielding $k=4\cdot 14+30 = \boxed{86}$.

Solution 2

We start as before: $ab=-32$ and $cd=62$. We now observe that a and b must be the roots of a quadratic, $x^2+rx-32$, where r is a constant (secretly, r is just -(a+b)=-p from Solution #1). Similarly, c and d must be the roots of a quadratic $x^2+sx+62$.

Now

\begin{align*}x^4-18x^3+kx^2+200x-1984 =& (x^2+rx-32)(x^2+sx+62)\\  =& x^4+(r+s)x^3+(62-32+rs)x^2\\ &+(62s-32r)x-1984.\end{align*}

Equating the coefficients of $x^3$ and $x$ with their known values, we are left with essentially the same linear equations as in Solution #1, which we solve in the same way. Then we compute the coefficient of $x^2$ and get $k=\boxed{86}.$

Video Solution

https://youtu.be/5QdPQ3__a7I?t=589

~ pi_is_3.14

See Also

1984 USAMO (ProblemsResources)
Preceded by
First
Problem
Followed by
Problem 2
1 2 3 4 5
All USAMO Problems and Solutions

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