Difference between revisions of "1984 USAMO Problems/Problem 1"
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In the polynomial <math>x^4 - 18x^3 + kx^2 + 200x - 1984 = 0</math>, the product of <math>2</math> of its roots is <math>- 32</math>. Find <math>k</math>. | In the polynomial <math>x^4 - 18x^3 + kx^2 + 200x - 1984 = 0</math>, the product of <math>2</math> of its roots is <math>- 32</math>. Find <math>k</math>. | ||
− | ==Solution== | + | === Solution 1 === |
− | |||
− | + | Using Vieta's formulas, we have: | |
− | + | <cmath>\begin{align*}a+b+c+d &= 18,\\ ab+ac+ad+bc+bd+cd &= k,\\ abc+abd+acd+bcd &=-200,\\ abcd &=-1984.\\ \end{align*}</cmath> | |
− | From the last of these equations, we see that <math>cd = \frac{abcd}{ab} = \frac{-1984}{-32} = 62</math>. Thus, the second equation becomes <math>-32+ac+ad+bc+bd+62=k</math>, and so <math>ac+ad+bc+bd=k-30</math>. The key insight is now to factor the left-hand side as a product of two binomials: <math>(a+b)(c+d)=k-30</math>, so that we now only need to determine <math>a+b</math> and <math>c+d</math> rather than all four of <math>a,b,c,d</math>. | + | |
+ | From the last of these equations, we see that <math>cd = \frac{abcd}{ab} = \frac{-1984}{-32} = 62</math>. Thus, the second equation becomes <math>-32+ac+ad+bc+bd+62=k</math>, and so <math>ac+ad+bc+bd=k-30</math>. The key insight is now to factor the left-hand side as a product of two binomials: <math>(a+b)(c+d)=k-30</math>, so that we now only need to determine <math>a+b</math> and <math>c+d</math> rather than all four of <math>a,b,c,d</math>. | ||
− | Let <math>p=a+b</math> and <math>q=c+d</math>. Plugging our known values for <math>ab</math> and <math>cd</math> into the third Vieta equation, <math>-200 = abc+abd + acd + bcd = ab(c+d) + cd(a+b)</math>, we have <math>-200 = -32(c+d) + 62(a+b) = 62p-32q</math>. Moreover, the first Vieta equation, a+b+c+d=18, gives p+q=18. Thus we have two linear equations in p and q, which we solve to obtain p=4 and q=14. | + | Let <math>p=a+b</math> and <math>q=c+d</math>. Plugging our known values for <math>ab</math> and <math>cd</math> into the third Vieta equation, <math>-200 = abc+abd + acd + bcd = ab(c+d) + cd(a+b)</math>, we have <math>-200 = -32(c+d) + 62(a+b) = 62p-32q</math>. Moreover, the first Vieta equation, <math>a+b+c+d=18</math>, gives <math>p+q=18</math>. Thus we have two linear equations in <math>p</math> and <math>q</math>, which we solve to obtain <math>p=4</math> and <math>q=14</math>. |
− | Therefore, we have (\underbrace{a+b}_4)(\underbrace{c+d}_{14}) = k-30, yielding k=4\cdot 14+30 = \boxed{86}. | + | Therefore, we have <math>(\underbrace{a+b}_4)(\underbrace{c+d}_{14}) = k-30</math>, yielding <math>k=4\cdot 14+30 = \boxed{86}</math>. |
− | Solution | + | === Solution 2 === |
− | We start as before: ab=-32 and cd=62. We now observe that a and b must be the roots of a quadratic, x^2+rx-32, where r is a constant (secretly, r is just -(a+b)=-p from Solution #1). Similarly, c and d must be the roots of a quadratic x^2+sx+62. | + | We start as before: <math>ab=-32</math> and <math>cd=62</math>. We now observe that a and b must be the roots of a quadratic, <math>x^2+rx-32</math>, where r is a constant (secretly, r is just -(a+b)=-p from Solution #1). Similarly, c and d must be the roots of a quadratic <math>x^2+sx+62</math>. |
− | Now \begin{align*} x^4 - 18x^3 + kx^2 + 200x - 1984 & | + | Now |
+ | |||
+ | <cmath> \begin{align*}x^4-18x^3+kx^2+200x-1984 =& (x^2+rx-32)(x^2+sx+62)\\ =& x^4+(r+s)x^3+(62-32+rs)x^2\\ | ||
+ | &+(62s-32r)x-1984.\end{align*} </cmath> | ||
+ | |||
+ | Equating the coefficients of <math>x^3</math> and <math>x</math> with their known values, we are left with essentially the same linear equations as in Solution #1, which we solve in the same way. Then we compute the coefficient of <math>x^2</math> and get <math>k=\boxed{86}.</math> | ||
+ | |||
+ | == Video Solution == | ||
+ | https://youtu.be/5QdPQ3__a7I?t=589 | ||
+ | |||
+ | ~ pi_is_3.14 | ||
==See Also== | ==See Also== |
Latest revision as of 22:46, 17 January 2021
Problem
In the polynomial , the product of of its roots is . Find .
Solution 1
Using Vieta's formulas, we have:
From the last of these equations, we see that . Thus, the second equation becomes , and so . The key insight is now to factor the left-hand side as a product of two binomials: , so that we now only need to determine and rather than all four of .
Let and . Plugging our known values for and into the third Vieta equation, , we have . Moreover, the first Vieta equation, , gives . Thus we have two linear equations in and , which we solve to obtain and .
Therefore, we have , yielding .
Solution 2
We start as before: and . We now observe that a and b must be the roots of a quadratic, , where r is a constant (secretly, r is just -(a+b)=-p from Solution #1). Similarly, c and d must be the roots of a quadratic .
Now
Equating the coefficients of and with their known values, we are left with essentially the same linear equations as in Solution #1, which we solve in the same way. Then we compute the coefficient of and get
Video Solution
https://youtu.be/5QdPQ3__a7I?t=589
~ pi_is_3.14
See Also
1984 USAMO (Problems • Resources) | ||
Preceded by First Problem |
Followed by Problem 2 | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 | ||
All USAMO Problems and Solutions |
The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions.