Difference between revisions of "1984 USAMO Problems/Problem 1"

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Let <math>p=a+b</math> and <math>q=c+d</math>. Plugging our known values for <math>ab</math> and <math>cd</math> into the third Vieta equation, <math>-200 = abc+abd + acd + bcd = ab(c+d) + cd(a+b)</math>, we have <math>-200 = -32(c+d) + 62(a+b) = 62p-32q</math>. Moreover, the first Vieta equation, <math>a+b+c+d=18</math>, gives <math>p+q=18</math>. Thus we have two linear equations in <math>p</math> and <math>q</math>, which we solve to obtain <math>p=4</math> and <math>q=14</math>.  
 
Let <math>p=a+b</math> and <math>q=c+d</math>. Plugging our known values for <math>ab</math> and <math>cd</math> into the third Vieta equation, <math>-200 = abc+abd + acd + bcd = ab(c+d) + cd(a+b)</math>, we have <math>-200 = -32(c+d) + 62(a+b) = 62p-32q</math>. Moreover, the first Vieta equation, <math>a+b+c+d=18</math>, gives <math>p+q=18</math>. Thus we have two linear equations in <math>p</math> and <math>q</math>, which we solve to obtain <math>p=4</math> and <math>q=14</math>.  
  
Therefore, we have <math>(\underbrace{a+b}_4)(\underbrace{c+d}_{14}) = k-30, yielding k=4\cdot 14+30 = \boxed{86}</math>.  
+
Therefore, we have <math>(\underbrace{a+b}_4)(\underbrace{c+d}_{14}) = k-30</math>, yielding <math>k=4\cdot 14+30 = \boxed{86}</math>.  
  
 
Solution #2 (sketch)  
 
Solution #2 (sketch)  

Revision as of 21:28, 27 April 2014

Problem

In the polynomial $x^4 - 18x^3 + kx^2 + 200x - 1984 = 0$, the product of $2$ of its roots is $- 32$. Find $k$.

Solution

Let the four roots be $a, b, c, and d$, so that $ab=-32$. From here we show two methods; the second is more slick, but harder to see.

Solution #1

Using Vieta's formulas, we have:

$\begin{align*}a+b+c+d &= 18,\\ ab+ac+ad+bc+bd+cd &= k,\\ abc+abd+acd+bcd &=-200,\\ abcd &=-1984.\\ \end{align*}$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Package amsmath Error: \begin{align*} allowed only in paragraph mode.)


From the last of these equations, we see that $cd = \frac{abcd}{ab} = \frac{-1984}{-32} = 62$. Thus, the second equation becomes $-32+ac+ad+bc+bd+62=k$, and so $ac+ad+bc+bd=k-30$. The key insight is now to factor the left-hand side as a product of two binomials: $(a+b)(c+d)=k-30$, so that we now only need to determine $a+b$ and $c+d$ rather than all four of $a,b,c,d$.

Let $p=a+b$ and $q=c+d$. Plugging our known values for $ab$ and $cd$ into the third Vieta equation, $-200 = abc+abd + acd + bcd = ab(c+d) + cd(a+b)$, we have $-200 = -32(c+d) + 62(a+b) = 62p-32q$. Moreover, the first Vieta equation, $a+b+c+d=18$, gives $p+q=18$. Thus we have two linear equations in $p$ and $q$, which we solve to obtain $p=4$ and $q=14$.

Therefore, we have $(\underbrace{a+b}_4)(\underbrace{c+d}_{14}) = k-30$, yielding $k=4\cdot 14+30 = \boxed{86}$.

Solution #2 (sketch)

We start as before: $ab=-32$ and $cd=62$. We now observe that a and b must be the roots of a quadratic, $x^2+rx-32$, where r is a constant (secretly, r is just -(a+b)=-p from Solution #1). Similarly, c and d must be the roots of a quadratic $x^2+sx+62$.

Now

$<cmath> \begin{align*}x^4-18x^3+kx^2+200x-1984 &= (x^2+rx-32)(x^2+sx+62)\\ & = x^4+(r+s)x^3+(62-32+rs)x^2+(62s-32r)x-1984.\end{align*} </cmath>$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Package amsmath Error: \begin{align*} allowed only in paragraph mode.)

Equating the coefficients of $x^3$ and $x$ with their known values, we are left with essentially the same linear equations as in Solution #1, which we solve in the same way. Then we compute the coefficient of $x^2$ and get $k=\boxed{86}.$

See Also

1984 USAMO (ProblemsResources)
Preceded by
First
Problem
Followed by
Problem 2
1 2 3 4 5
All USAMO Problems and Solutions

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