Difference between revisions of "1986 AIME Problems/Problem 7"

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The increasing [[sequence]] <math>1,3,4,9,10,12,13\cdots</math> consists of all those positive [[integer]]s which are [[exponent|powers]] of 3 or sums of distinct powers of 3. Find the <math>\displaystyle 100^{\mbox{th}}</math> term of this sequence.
 
The increasing [[sequence]] <math>1,3,4,9,10,12,13\cdots</math> consists of all those positive [[integer]]s which are [[exponent|powers]] of 3 or sums of distinct powers of 3. Find the <math>\displaystyle 100^{\mbox{th}}</math> term of this sequence.
  
== Solution ==
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== Solution 1 ==
Rewrite all of the terms in base 3. Since the numbers are sums of ''distinct'' powers of 3, in base 3 each number is a sequence of 1s and 0s (if there is a 2, then it is no longer the sum of distinct powers of 3). Therefore, we can recast this into base 2 (binary) in order to determine the 100th number. <math>100</math> is equal to <math>64 + 32 + 4</math>, so in binary form we get <math>\displaystyle 1100100</math>. However, we must change it back to base 3 for the answer, which is <math>\displaystyle 3^6 + 3^5 + 3^2 = 729 + 243 + 9 = 981</math>.
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Rewrite all of the terms in base 3. Since the numbers are sums of ''distinct'' powers of 3, in base 3 each number is a sequence of 1s and 0s (if there is a 2, then it is no longer the sum of distinct powers of 3). Therefore, we can recast this into base 2 (binary) in order to determine the 100th number. <math>100</math> is equal to <math>64 + 32 + 4</math>, so in binary form we get <math>1100100</math>. However, we must change it back to base 3 for the answer, which is <math>3^6 + 3^5 + 3^2 = 729 + 243 + 9 = 981</math>.
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== Solution 2 ==
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Notice that the first term of the sequence is <math>1</math>, the second is <math>9</math>, the fourth is <math>27</math>, and so on. Thus the <math>64th</math> term of the sequence is <math>729</math>. Now out of <math>64</math> terms which are of the form <math>729</math> + <math>'''S'''</math>, <math>32</math> of them include <math>243</math> and <math>32</math> do not. The smallest term that includes <math>243</math>, i.e. <math>972</math>, is greater than the largest term which does not, or <math>854</math>. So the <math>95</math>th term will be <math>972</math>, then <math>973</math>, then <math>976</math>, then <math>977</math>, and finally <math>981</math>
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Revision as of 02:03, 30 June 2009

Problem

The increasing sequence $1,3,4,9,10,12,13\cdots$ consists of all those positive integers which are powers of 3 or sums of distinct powers of 3. Find the $\displaystyle 100^{\mbox{th}}$ term of this sequence.

Solution 1

Rewrite all of the terms in base 3. Since the numbers are sums of distinct powers of 3, in base 3 each number is a sequence of 1s and 0s (if there is a 2, then it is no longer the sum of distinct powers of 3). Therefore, we can recast this into base 2 (binary) in order to determine the 100th number. $100$ is equal to $64 + 32 + 4$, so in binary form we get $1100100$. However, we must change it back to base 3 for the answer, which is $3^6 + 3^5 + 3^2 = 729 + 243 + 9 = 981$.


Solution 2

Notice that the first term of the sequence is $1$, the second is $9$, the fourth is $27$, and so on. Thus the $64th$ term of the sequence is $729$. Now out of $64$ terms which are of the form $729$ + $'''S'''$, $32$ of them include $243$ and $32$ do not. The smallest term that includes $243$, i.e. $972$, is greater than the largest term which does not, or $854$. So the $95$th term will be $972$, then $973$, then $976$, then $977$, and finally $981$

See also

1986 AIME (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 6
Followed by
Problem 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions
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