1988 IMO Problems/Problem 6
Problem
Let and be positive integers such that divides . Show that is the square of an integer.
Solution
Choose integers such that Now, for fixed , out of all pairs choose the one with the lowest value of . Label . Thus, is a quadratic in . Should there be another root, , the root would satisfy: Thus, isn't a positive integer (if it were, it would contradict the minimality condition). But , so is an integer; hence, . In addition, so that . We conclude that so that .
This construction works whenever there exists a solution for a fixed , hence is always a perfect square.
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