Difference between revisions of "1989 AIME Problems/Problem 3"

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== Solution ==
 
== Solution ==
Repeating decimals represent [[rational number]]s.  To figure out which rational number, we sum an [[infinite]] [[geometric series]], <math>0.d25d25d25\ldots = \sum_{i = 1}^\infty \frac{d25}{1000^n} = \frac{100d + 25}{999}</math>.  Thus <math>\frac{n}{810} = \frac{100d + 25}{999}</math> so <math>n = 30\frac{100d + 25}{37} =750\frac{4d + 1}{37}</math>.  Since 750 and 37 are [[relatively prime]], <math>4d + 1</math> must be [[divisible]] by 37, and the only digit for which this is possible is <math>d = 9</math>.  Thus <math>4d + 1 = 37</math> and <math>n = 750</math>.
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Repeating decimals represent [[rational number]]s.  To figure out which rational number, we sum an [[infinite]] [[geometric series]], <math>0.d25d25d25\ldots = \sum_{i = 1}^\infty \frac{d25}{1000^n} = \frac{100d + 25}{999}</math>.  Thus <math>\frac{n}{810} = \frac{100d + 25}{999}</math> so <math>n = 30\frac{100d + 25}{37} =750\frac{4d + 1}{37}</math>.  Since 750 and 37 are [[relatively prime]], <math>4d + 1</math> must be [[divisible]] by 37, and the only digit for which this is possible is <math>d = 9</math>.  Thus <math>4d + 1 = 37</math> and <math>n = \boxed{750}</math>.
  
  

Revision as of 23:08, 1 April 2018

Problem

Suppose $n$ is a positive integer and $d$ is a single digit in base 10. Find $n$ if

$\frac{n}{810}=0.d25d25d25\ldots$

Solution

Repeating decimals represent rational numbers. To figure out which rational number, we sum an infinite geometric series, $0.d25d25d25\ldots = \sum_{i = 1}^\infty \frac{d25}{1000^n} = \frac{100d + 25}{999}$. Thus $\frac{n}{810} = \frac{100d + 25}{999}$ so $n = 30\frac{100d + 25}{37} =750\frac{4d + 1}{37}$. Since 750 and 37 are relatively prime, $4d + 1$ must be divisible by 37, and the only digit for which this is possible is $d = 9$. Thus $4d + 1 = 37$ and $n = \boxed{750}$.


(Note: Any repeating sequence of $n$ digits that looks like $0.a_1a_2a_3...a_{n-1}a_na_1a_2...$ can be written as $\frac{a_1a_2...a_n}{10^n-1}$, where $a_1a_2...a_n$ represents an $n$ digit number.)

Solution 2

To get rid of repeating decimals, we multiply the equation by 1000. We get $\frac{1000n}{810} = d25.d25d25...$ We subtract the original equation from the second to get $\frac{999n}{810}=d25$ We simplify to $\frac{37n}{30} = d25$ Since $\frac{37n}{30}$ is an integer, $n=(30)(5)(2k+1)$ because $37$ is relatively prime to $30$, and d25 is divisible by $5$ but not $10$. The only odd number that yields a single digit $d$ and 25 at the end of the three digit number is $k=2$, so the answer is $750$.

See also

1989 AIME (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 2
Followed by
Problem 4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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