# Difference between revisions of "1993 USAMO Problems"

## Problem 1

For each integer $n\ge2$, determine, with proof, which of the two positive real numbers $a$ and $b$ satisfying

$a^n = a + 1, \quad b^{2n} = b + 3a$

is larger.

## Problem 2

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral such that diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ intersect at right angles, and let $E$ be their intersection. Prove that the reflections of $E$ across $AB$, $BC$, $CD$, $DA$ are concyclic.

## Problem 3

Consider functions $f : [0, 1] \rightarrow \Re$ which satisfy

 (i) $f(x)\ge0$ for all $x$ in $[0, 1]$, (ii) $f(1) = 1$, (iii) $f(x) + f(y) \le f(x + y)$ whenever $x$, $y$, and $x + y$ are all in $[0, 1]$.

Find, with proof, the smallest constant $c$ such that

$f(x) \le cx$

for every function $f$ satisfying (i)-(iii) and every $x$ in $[0, 1]$.

## Problem 4

Let $a$, $b$ be odd positive integers. Define the sequence $(f_n)$ by putting $f_1 = a$, $f_2 = b$, and by letting $f_n$ for $n\ge3$ be the greatest odd divisor of $f_{n-1} + f_{n-2}$. Show that $f_n$ is constant for $n$ sufficiently large and determine the eventual value as a function of $a$ and $b$.

## Problem 5

Let $a_0, a_1, a_2,\cdots$ be a sequence of positive real numbers satisfying $a_{i-1}a_{i+1}\le a^2_i$ for $i = 1, 2, 3,\cdots$ . (Such a sequence is said to be log concave.) Show that for each $n > 1$,

$\frac{a_0+\cdots+a_n}{n+1}\cdot\frac{a_1+\cdots+a_{n-1}}{n-1}\ge\frac{a_0+\cdots+a_{n-1}}{n}\cdot\frac{a_1+\cdots+a_{n}}{n}$.