Difference between revisions of "1997 AIME Problems/Problem 12"
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First, we note that <math>e = \frac ac</math> is the horizontal [[Asymptote (Geometry)|asymptote]] of the function, and since this is a linear function over a linear function, the unique number not in the range of <math>f</math> will be <math>e</math>. <math>\frac{ax+b}{cx+d} = \frac{b-\frac{cd}{a}}{cx+d} + \frac{a}{c}</math>. [[Without loss of generality]], let <math>c=1</math>, so the function becomes <math>\frac{b- \frac{d}{a}}{x+d} + e</math>. | First, we note that <math>e = \frac ac</math> is the horizontal [[Asymptote (Geometry)|asymptote]] of the function, and since this is a linear function over a linear function, the unique number not in the range of <math>f</math> will be <math>e</math>. <math>\frac{ax+b}{cx+d} = \frac{b-\frac{cd}{a}}{cx+d} + \frac{a}{c}</math>. [[Without loss of generality]], let <math>c=1</math>, so the function becomes <math>\frac{b- \frac{d}{a}}{x+d} + e</math>. | ||
− | (Considering <math>\infty</math> as a limit) By the given, <math>f(f(\infty)) = \infty</math>. <math>\lim_{x \rightarrow \infty} f(x) = e</math>, so <math>f(e) = \infty</math>. <math>f(x) \rightarrow \infty</math> as <math>x</math> reaches the vertical [[asymptote]], which is at <math>-\frac{d}{c} = -d</math>. Hence <math>e = -d</math>. Substituting the givens, we get | + | (Considering <math>\infty</math> as a limit) By the given, <math>f(f(\infty)) = \infty</math>. <math>\lim_{x \rightarrow \infty} f(x) = e</math>, so <math>f(e) = \infty</math>. <math>f(x) \rightarrow \infty</math> as <math>x</math> reaches the vertical [[Asymptote (Geometry)|asymptote]], which is at <math>-\frac{d}{c} = -d</math>. Hence <math>e = -d</math>. Substituting the givens, we get |
<cmath>\begin{eqnarray*} | <cmath>\begin{eqnarray*} |
Revision as of 21:04, 11 February 2009
Problem
The function defined by , where ,, and are nonzero real numbers, has the properties , and for all values except . Find the unique number that is not in the range of .
Solution
Solution 1
First, we use the fact that for all in the domain. Substituting the function definition, we have , which reduces to . In order for this fraction to reduce to , we must have and . From , we get or . The second cannot be true, since we are given that are nonzero. This means , so .
The only value that is not in the range of this function is . To find , we use the two values of the function given to us. We get and . Subtracting the second equation from the first will eliminate , and this results in , so ${\frac {a}{c} = \frac {(97 - 19)(97 + 19)}{2(97 - 19)} = \boxed{058}$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Missing } inserted.).
Alternatively, we could have found out that by using the fact that .
Solution 2
First, we note that is the horizontal asymptote of the function, and since this is a linear function over a linear function, the unique number not in the range of will be . . Without loss of generality, let , so the function becomes .
(Considering as a limit) By the given, . , so . as reaches the vertical asymptote, which is at . Hence . Substituting the givens, we get
Clearly we can discard the positive root, so .
See also
1997 AIME (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | ||
Preceded by Problem 11 |
Followed by Problem 13 | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 | ||
All AIME Problems and Solutions |