Difference between revisions of "1997 AIME Problems/Problem 12"
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The [[function]] <math>f</math> defined by <math>f(x)= \frac{ax+b}{cx+d}</math>, where <math>a</math>,<math>b</math>,<math>c</math> and <math>d</math> are nonzero real numbers, has the properties <math>f(19)=19</math>, <math>f(97)=97</math> and <math>f(f(x))=x</math> for all values except <math>\frac{-d}{c}</math>. Find the unique number that is not in the range of <math>f</math>. | The [[function]] <math>f</math> defined by <math>f(x)= \frac{ax+b}{cx+d}</math>, where <math>a</math>,<math>b</math>,<math>c</math> and <math>d</math> are nonzero real numbers, has the properties <math>f(19)=19</math>, <math>f(97)=97</math> and <math>f(f(x))=x</math> for all values except <math>\frac{-d}{c}</math>. Find the unique number that is not in the range of <math>f</math>. | ||
+ | __TOC__ | ||
== Solution == | == Solution == | ||
+ | === Solution 1 === | ||
+ | First, we use the fact that <math>f(f(x)) = x</math> for all <math>x</math> in the domain. Substituting the function definition, we have <math>{\frac {a\frac {ax + b}{cx + d} + b}{c\frac {ax + b}{cx + d} + d} = x}</math>, which reduces to <math>{\frac {(a^2 + bc)x + b(a + d)}{c(a + d)x + (bc + d^2)} = \frac {ex + f}{gx + h} = x}</math>. In order for this fraction to reduce to <math>x</math>, we must have <math>f = g = 0</math> and <math>e = h\not = 0</math>. From <math>c(a + d) = b(a + d) = 0</math>, we get <math>a = - d</math> or <math>b = c = 0</math>. The second cannot be true, since we are given that <math>a,b,c,d</math> are nonzero. This means <math>a = - d</math>, so <math>f(x) = \frac {ax + b}{cx - a}</math>. | ||
+ | |||
+ | The only value that is not in the range of this function is <math>\lim_{x\to - d/c}f(x) = \frac {a}{c}</math>. To find <math>\frac {a}{c}</math>, we use the two values of the function given to us. We get <math>2(97)a + b = 97^2c</math> and <math>2(19)a + b = 19^2c</math>. Subtracting the second equation from the first will eliminate <math>b</math>, and this results in <math>2(97 - 19)a = (97^2 - 19^2)c</math>, so <math>{\frac {a}{c} = \frac {(97 - 19)(97 + 19)}{2(97 - 19)} = \boxed{058}</math>. | ||
+ | |||
+ | === Solution 2 === | ||
First, we note that <math>e = \frac ac</math> is the horizontal [[asymptote]] of the function, and since this is a linear function over a linear function, the unique number not in the range of <math>f</math> will be <math>e</math>. <math>\frac{ax+b}{cx+d} = \frac{b-\frac{cd}{a}}{cx+d} + \frac{a}{c}</math>. [[Without loss of generality]], let <math>c=1</math>, so the function becomes <math>\frac{b- \frac{d}{a}}{x+d} + e</math>. | First, we note that <math>e = \frac ac</math> is the horizontal [[asymptote]] of the function, and since this is a linear function over a linear function, the unique number not in the range of <math>f</math> will be <math>e</math>. <math>\frac{ax+b}{cx+d} = \frac{b-\frac{cd}{a}}{cx+d} + \frac{a}{c}</math>. [[Without loss of generality]], let <math>c=1</math>, so the function becomes <math>\frac{b- \frac{d}{a}}{x+d} + e</math>. | ||
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\end{eqnarray*}</cmath> | \end{eqnarray*}</cmath> | ||
− | Clearly we can discard the positive root, so <math>e = \ | + | Clearly we can discard the positive root, so <math>e = \boxed{58}</math>. |
== See also == | == See also == |
Revision as of 21:35, 23 November 2007
Problem
The function defined by , where ,, and are nonzero real numbers, has the properties , and for all values except . Find the unique number that is not in the range of .
Solution
Solution 1
First, we use the fact that for all in the domain. Substituting the function definition, we have , which reduces to . In order for this fraction to reduce to , we must have and . From , we get or . The second cannot be true, since we are given that are nonzero. This means , so .
The only value that is not in the range of this function is . To find , we use the two values of the function given to us. We get and . Subtracting the second equation from the first will eliminate , and this results in , so ${\frac {a}{c} = \frac {(97 - 19)(97 + 19)}{2(97 - 19)} = \boxed{058}$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Missing } inserted.).
Solution 2
First, we note that is the horizontal asymptote of the function, and since this is a linear function over a linear function, the unique number not in the range of will be . . Without loss of generality, let , so the function becomes .
(Considering as a limit) By the given, . , so . as reaches the vertical asymptote, which is at . Hence . Substituting the givens, we get
Clearly we can discard the positive root, so .
See also
1997 AIME (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | ||
Preceded by Problem 11 |
Followed by Problem 13 | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 | ||
All AIME Problems and Solutions |