Difference between revisions of "1998 AHSME Problems/Problem 28"
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+ | == Problem == | ||
+ | In triangle <math>ABC</math>, angle <math>C</math> is a [[right angle]] and <math>CB > CA</math>. Point <math>D</math> is located on <math>\overline{BC}</math> so that angle <math>CAD</math> is twice angle <math>DAB</math>. If <math>AC/AD = 2/3</math>, then <math>CD/BD = m/n</math>, where <math>m</math> and <math>n</math> are relatively prime positive integers. Find <math>m+n</math>. | ||
+ | <math> \mathrm{(A) \ }10 \qquad \mathrm{(B) \ }14 \qquad \mathrm{(C) \ }18 \qquad \mathrm{(D) \ }22 \qquad \mathrm{(E) \ } 26</math> | ||
+ | |||
+ | == Solution == | ||
+ | Let <math>\theta = \angle DAB</math>, so <math>2\theta = \angle CAD</math> and <math>3 \theta = \angle CAB</math>. Then, it is given that <math>\cos 2\theta = \frac{AC}{AD} = \frac{2}{3}</math> and | ||
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+ | <center><math>\frac{BD}{CD} = \frac{AC(\tan 3\theta - \tan 2\theta)}{AC \tan 2\theta} = \frac{\tan 3\theta}{\tan 2\theta} - 1.</math></center> | ||
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+ | Now, through the use of trigonometric identities, <math>\cos 2\theta = 2\cos^2 \theta - 1 = \frac{2}{\sec ^2 \theta} - 1 = \frac{1 - \tan^2 \theta}{1 + \tan ^2 \theta} = \frac{2}{3}</math>. Solving yields that <math>\tan^2 \theta = \frac 15</math>. Using the tangent addition identity, we find that <math>\tan 2\theta = \frac{2\tan \theta}{1 - \tan ^2 \theta},\ \tan 3\theta = \frac{3\tan \theta - \tan^3 \theta}{1 - 3\tan^2 \theta}</math>, and | ||
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+ | <center><math>\frac{BD}{CD} = \frac{\tan 3\theta}{\tan 2\theta} - 1 = \frac{(3 - \tan^2 \theta)(1-\tan ^2 \theta)}{2(1 - 3\tan^2 \theta)} - 1 = \frac{(1 + \tan^2 \theta)^2}{2(1 - 3\tan^2 \theta)} = \frac{9}{5}</math></center> | ||
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+ | and <math>\frac{CD}{BD} = \frac{5}{9} \Longrightarrow m+n = 14 \Longrightarrow \mathbf{(B)}</math>. (This also may have been done on a calculator by finding <math>\theta</math> directly) | ||
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+ | ==Solution 2== | ||
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+ | Let <math>AC=2</math> and <math>AD=3</math>. By the Pythagorean Theorem, <math>CD=\sqrt{5}</math>. Let point <math>P</math> be on segment <math>CD</math> such that <math>AP</math> bisects <math>\angle CAD</math>. Thus, angles <math>CAP</math>, <math>PAD</math>, and <math>DAB</math> are congruent. Applying the angle bisector theorem on <math>ACD</math>, we get that <math>CP=\frac{2\sqrt{5}}{5}</math> and <math>PD=\frac{3\sqrt{5}}{5}</math>. Pythagorean Theorem gives <math>AP=\frac{\sqrt{5}\sqrt{24}}{5}</math>. | ||
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+ | Let <math>DB=x</math>. By the Pythagorean Theorem, <math>AB=\sqrt{(x+\sqrt{5})^{2}+2^2}</math>. Applying the angle bisector theorem again on triangle <math>APB</math>, we have <cmath>\frac{\sqrt{(x+\sqrt{5})^{2}+2^2}}{x}=\frac{\frac{\sqrt{5}\sqrt{24}}{5}}{\frac{3\sqrt{5}}{5}}</cmath> | ||
+ | The right side simplifies to<math>\frac{\sqrt{24}}{3}</math>. Cross multiplying, squaring, and simplifying, we get a quadratic: <cmath>5x^2-6\sqrt{5}x-27=0</cmath> Solving this quadratic and taking the positive root gives <cmath>x=\frac{9\sqrt{5}}{5}</cmath> Finally, taking the desired ratio and canceling the roots gives <math>\frac{CD}{BD}=\frac{5}{9}</math>. The answer is <math>\fbox{(B) 14}</math>. | ||
+ | |||
+ | == See also == | ||
+ | {{AHSME box|year=1998|num-b=27|num-a=29}} | ||
+ | |||
+ | [[Category:Intermediate Geometry Problems]] | ||
+ | [[Category:Intermediate Trigonometry Problems]] | ||
+ | {{MAA Notice}} |
Revision as of 12:57, 16 August 2017
Contents
Problem
In triangle , angle is a right angle and . Point is located on so that angle is twice angle . If , then , where and are relatively prime positive integers. Find .
Solution
Let , so and . Then, it is given that and
Now, through the use of trigonometric identities, . Solving yields that . Using the tangent addition identity, we find that , and
and . (This also may have been done on a calculator by finding directly)
Solution 2
Let and . By the Pythagorean Theorem, . Let point be on segment such that bisects . Thus, angles , , and are congruent. Applying the angle bisector theorem on , we get that and . Pythagorean Theorem gives .
Let . By the Pythagorean Theorem, . Applying the angle bisector theorem again on triangle , we have The right side simplifies to. Cross multiplying, squaring, and simplifying, we get a quadratic: Solving this quadratic and taking the positive root gives Finally, taking the desired ratio and canceling the roots gives . The answer is .
See also
1998 AHSME (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | ||
Preceded by Problem 27 |
Followed by Problem 29 | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 • 16 • 17 • 18 • 19 • 20 • 21 • 22 • 23 • 24 • 25 • 26 • 27 • 28 • 29 • 30 | ||
All AHSME Problems and Solutions |
The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions.