Difference between revisions of "1998 AIME Problems/Problem 7"

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Define <math>x_i = 2y_i - 1</math>. Then <math>2\left(\sum_{i = 1}^4 y_i\right) - 4 = 98</math>, so <math>\sum_{i = 1}^4 y_i = 51</math>.  
 
Define <math>x_i = 2y_i - 1</math>. Then <math>2\left(\sum_{i = 1}^4 y_i\right) - 4 = 98</math>, so <math>\sum_{i = 1}^4 y_i = 51</math>.  
  
So we want to find four integers that sum up to 51; we can imagine this as trying to split up 51 on the number line into 4 ranges. This is equivalent to trying to place 3 markers on the numbers 1 through 50; thus the answer is <math>n = {50\choose3} = \frac{50 * 49 * 48}{3 * 2} = 19600</math>, and <math>\frac n{100} = \boxed{196}</math>.
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So we want to find four natural numbers that sum up to 51; we can imagine this as trying to split up 51 on the number line into 4 ranges. This is equivalent to trying to place 3 markers on the numbers 1 through 50; thus the answer is <math>n = {50\choose3} = \frac{50 * 49 * 48}{3 * 2} = 19600</math>, and <math>\frac n{100} = \boxed{196}</math>.
  
 
=== Solution 2 ===
 
=== Solution 2 ===

Revision as of 15:16, 18 August 2018

Problem

Let $n$ be the number of ordered quadruples $(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4)$ of positive odd integers that satisfy $\sum_{i = 1}^4 x_i = 98.$ Find $\frac n{100}.$

Solution

Solution 1

Define $x_i = 2y_i - 1$. Then $2\left(\sum_{i = 1}^4 y_i\right) - 4 = 98$, so $\sum_{i = 1}^4 y_i = 51$.

So we want to find four natural numbers that sum up to 51; we can imagine this as trying to split up 51 on the number line into 4 ranges. This is equivalent to trying to place 3 markers on the numbers 1 through 50; thus the answer is $n = {50\choose3} = \frac{50 * 49 * 48}{3 * 2} = 19600$, and $\frac n{100} = \boxed{196}$.

Solution 2

Another way we can approach this problem is by imagining a line of 98 stones. We want to place the stones into $4$ boxes so that each box has an odd number of stones. We then proceed by placing one stone in each box to begin with, ensuring that we have a positive number in every box. Now we have $94$ stones left. Because we want an odd number in each box, we pair the stones, creating $47$ sets of $2$. Every time we add a pair to one of the boxes, the number of stones in the box remains odd, because (an odd #) + (an even #) = (an odd #).

Our problem can now be restated: how many ways are there to partition a line of $47$ stones? We can easily solve this by using $3$ sticks to separate the stones into $4$ groups, and this is the same as arranging a line of $3$ sticks and $47$ stones. \[\frac{50!}{47! \cdot 3!} = 19600\] \[\frac{50 * 49 * 48}{3 * 2} = 19600\] Our answer is therefore $\frac{19600}{100} = \boxed{196}$

See also

1998 AIME (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 6
Followed by
Problem 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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