Difference between revisions of "2000 AIME II Problems/Problem 15"

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== Problem ==
 
== Problem ==
A stack of <math>2000</math> cards is labelled with the integers from <math>1</math> to <math>2000,</math> with different integers on different cards. The cards in the stack are not in numerical order. The top card is removed from the stack and placed on the table, and the next card is moved to the bottom of the stack. The new top card is removed from the stack and placed on the table, to the right of the card already there, and the next card in the stack is moved to the bottom of the stack. The process - placing the top card to the right of the cards already on the table and moving the next card in the stack to the bottom of the stack - is repeated until all cards are on the table. It is found that, reading from left to right, the labels on the cards are now in ascending order: <math>1,2,3,\ldots,1999,2000.</math> In the original stack of cards, how many cards were above the card labeled 1999?
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Find the least positive integer <math>n</math> such that <center><math>\frac 1{\sin 45^\circ\sin 46^\circ}+\frac 1{\sin 47^\circ\sin 48^\circ}+\cdots+\frac 1{\sin 133^\circ\sin 134^\circ}=\frac 1{\sin n^\circ}.</math></center>
  
== Solution ==
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== Solution 1 ==
{{solution}}
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We apply the identity
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<cmath>\begin{align*}
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\frac{1}{\sin n \sin (n+1)} &= \frac{1}{\sin 1} \cdot \frac{\sin (n+1) \cos n - \sin n \cos (n+1)}{\sin n \sin (n+1)} \\ &= \frac{1}{\sin 1} \cdot \left(\frac{\cos n}{\sin n} - \frac{\cos (n+1)}{\sin (n+1)}\right) \\ &= \frac{1}{\sin 1} \cdot \left(\cot n - \cot (n+1)\right). \end{align*}</cmath>
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The motivation for this identity arises from the need to decompose those fractions, possibly into [[telescoping]].
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Thus our summation becomes
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<cmath>\sum_{k=23}^{67} \frac{1}{\sin (2k-1) \sin 2k} = \frac{1}{\sin 1} \left(\cot 45 - \cot 46 + \cot 47 - \cdots + \cot 133 - \cot 134 \right).</cmath>
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Since <math>\cot (180 - x) = - \cot x</math>, the summation simply reduces to <math>\frac{1}{\sin 1} \cdot \left( \cot 45 - \cot 90 \right) = \frac{1 - 0}{\sin 1} = \frac{1}{\sin 1^{\circ}}</math>. Therefore, the answer is <math>\boxed{001}</math>.
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== Solution 2 ==
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We can make an approximation by observing the following points:
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The average term is around the 60's which gives <math>\frac{4}{3}</math>.
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There are 45 terms, so the approximate sum is 60.
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Therefore, the entire thing equals approximately <math>\frac{1}{60}</math>.
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Recall that the approximation of <math>\sin(x)</math> in radians is x if x is close to zero. In this case x is close to zero. Converting to radians we see that <math>\sin(1)</math> in degrees is about sin<math>\frac{1}{57}</math> in radians, or is about <math>\frac{1}{57}</math> because of the approximation. What we want is apparently close to that so we make the guess that n is equal to 1 degree. Basically, it boils down to the approximation of <math>\sin(1)=\frac{1}{60}</math> in degrees, convert to radians and use the small angle approximation <math>\sin(x)=x</math>.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
 
{{AIME box|year=2000|n=II|num-b=14|after=Last Question}}
 
{{AIME box|year=2000|n=II|num-b=14|after=Last Question}}
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[[Category:Intermediate Trigonometry Problems]]
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{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 09:37, 26 October 2016

Problem

Find the least positive integer $n$ such that

$\frac 1{\sin 45^\circ\sin 46^\circ}+\frac 1{\sin 47^\circ\sin 48^\circ}+\cdots+\frac 1{\sin 133^\circ\sin 134^\circ}=\frac 1{\sin n^\circ}.$

Solution 1

We apply the identity

\begin{align*} \frac{1}{\sin n \sin (n+1)} &= \frac{1}{\sin 1} \cdot \frac{\sin (n+1) \cos n - \sin n \cos (n+1)}{\sin n \sin (n+1)} \\ &= \frac{1}{\sin 1} \cdot \left(\frac{\cos n}{\sin n} - \frac{\cos (n+1)}{\sin (n+1)}\right) \\ &= \frac{1}{\sin 1} \cdot \left(\cot n - \cot (n+1)\right). \end{align*}

The motivation for this identity arises from the need to decompose those fractions, possibly into telescoping.

Thus our summation becomes

\[\sum_{k=23}^{67} \frac{1}{\sin (2k-1) \sin 2k} = \frac{1}{\sin 1} \left(\cot 45 - \cot 46 + \cot 47 - \cdots + \cot 133 - \cot 134 \right).\]

Since $\cot (180 - x) = - \cot x$, the summation simply reduces to $\frac{1}{\sin 1} \cdot \left( \cot 45 - \cot 90 \right) = \frac{1 - 0}{\sin 1} = \frac{1}{\sin 1^{\circ}}$. Therefore, the answer is $\boxed{001}$.

Solution 2

We can make an approximation by observing the following points:

The average term is around the 60's which gives $\frac{4}{3}$.

There are 45 terms, so the approximate sum is 60.

Therefore, the entire thing equals approximately $\frac{1}{60}$.

Recall that the approximation of $\sin(x)$ in radians is x if x is close to zero. In this case x is close to zero. Converting to radians we see that $\sin(1)$ in degrees is about sin$\frac{1}{57}$ in radians, or is about $\frac{1}{57}$ because of the approximation. What we want is apparently close to that so we make the guess that n is equal to 1 degree. Basically, it boils down to the approximation of $\sin(1)=\frac{1}{60}$ in degrees, convert to radians and use the small angle approximation $\sin(x)=x$.

See also

2000 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 14
Followed by
Last Question
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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