Difference between revisions of "2004 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 25"

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== Solution ==
 
== Solution ==
  
Given <math>n</math> digits, there must be a power of <math>2</math> with <math>n</math> digits such that the first digit is <math>1</math>. Thus <math>S</math> contains <math>603</math> elements with a first digit of <math>1</math>. For each number in the form of <math>2^k</math> such that its first digit is <math>1</math>, then <math>2^{k+1}</math> must either have a first digit of <math>2</math> or <math>3</math>, and <math>2^{k+2}</math> must have a first digit of <math>4,5,6,7</math>. Thus there are also <math>603</math> numbers with first digit either <math>\{2,3\}</math> or <math>\{4,5,6,7\}</math>. By the [[complement principle]], there are <math>2004 - 3 \times 603 = 195</math> elements of <math>S</math> with a first digit of <math>\{8,9\}</math>. Now, <math>2^k</math> has a first of <math>\{8,9\}</math> [[iff|if and only if]] the first digit of <math>2^{k-1}</math> is <math>4</math>, so there are <math>\boxed{195} \Rightarrow \mathrm{(B)}</math> elements of <math>S</math> with a first digit of <math>4</math>.  
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Given <math>n</math> digits, there must be a power of <math>2</math> with <math>n</math> digits such that the first digit is <math>1</math>. Thus <math>S</math> contains <math>603</math> elements with a first digit of <math>1</math>. For each number in the form of <math>2^k</math> such that its first digit is <math>1</math>, then <math>2^{k+1}</math> must either have a first digit of <math>2</math> or <math>3</math>, and <math>2^{k+2}</math> must have a first digit of <math>4,5,6,7</math>. Thus there are also <math>603</math> numbers with first digit either <math>\{2,3\}</math> or <math>\{4,5,6,7\}</math>. By using [[complementary counting]], there are <math>2004 - 3 \times 603 = 195</math> elements of <math>S</math> with a first digit of <math>\{8,9\}</math>. Now, <math>2^k</math> has a first of <math>\{8,9\}</math> [[iff|if and only if]] the first digit of <math>2^{k-1}</math> is <math>4</math>, so there are <math>\boxed{195} \Rightarrow \mathrm{(B)}</math> elements of <math>S</math> with a first digit of <math>4</math>.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Revision as of 14:34, 18 September 2011

Problem

Given that $2^{2004}$ is a $604$-digit number whose first digit is $1$, how many elements of the set $S = \{2^0,2^1,2^2,\ldots ,2^{2003}\}$ have a first digit of $4$?

$\mathrm{(A)}\ 194 \qquad \mathrm{(B)}\ 195 \qquad \mathrm{(C)}\ 196 \qquad \mathrm{(D)}\ 197 \qquad \mathrm{(E)}\ 198$

Solution

Given $n$ digits, there must be a power of $2$ with $n$ digits such that the first digit is $1$. Thus $S$ contains $603$ elements with a first digit of $1$. For each number in the form of $2^k$ such that its first digit is $1$, then $2^{k+1}$ must either have a first digit of $2$ or $3$, and $2^{k+2}$ must have a first digit of $4,5,6,7$. Thus there are also $603$ numbers with first digit either $\{2,3\}$ or $\{4,5,6,7\}$. By using complementary counting, there are $2004 - 3 \times 603 = 195$ elements of $S$ with a first digit of $\{8,9\}$. Now, $2^k$ has a first of $\{8,9\}$ if and only if the first digit of $2^{k-1}$ is $4$, so there are $\boxed{195} \Rightarrow \mathrm{(B)}$ elements of $S$ with a first digit of $4$.

See also

2004 AMC 12B (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
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