Difference between revisions of "2005 AMC 10B Problems/Problem 14"
Hashtagmath (talk | contribs) (→Solution 4) |
|||
(17 intermediate revisions by 13 users not shown) | |||
Line 12: | Line 12: | ||
draw(A--B--C--cycle); | draw(A--B--C--cycle); | ||
− | draw(C--D--M--cycle);</asy><math> \textrm{(A)}\ \frac {\sqrt {2}}{2}\qquad \textrm{(B)}\ \frac {3}{4}\qquad \textrm{(C)}\ \frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}\qquad \textrm{(D)}\ 1\qquad \textrm{(E)}\ \sqrt {2}</math> | + | draw(C--D--M--cycle);</asy> |
− | == Solution == | + | |
+ | <math> \textrm{(A)}\ \frac {\sqrt {2}}{2}\qquad \textrm{(B)}\ \frac {3}{4}\qquad \textrm{(C)}\ \frac {\sqrt {3}}{2}\qquad \textrm{(D)}\ 1\qquad \textrm{(E)}\ \sqrt {2}</math> | ||
+ | |||
+ | == Solutions == | ||
+ | ===Solution 1 (simplest) === | ||
+ | The area of a triangle can be given by <math>\frac12 ab \sin C</math>. <math>MC=1</math> because it is the midpoint of a side, and <math>CD=2</math> because it is the same length as <math>BC</math>. Each angle of an equilateral triangle is <math>60^\circ</math> so <math>\angle MCD = 120^\circ</math>. The area is <math>\frac12 (1)(2) \sin | ||
+ | 120^\circ = \boxed{\textbf{(C)}\ \frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}}</math>. | ||
+ | Note: Even if you don't know the value of <math>\sin 120^\circ</math>, you can use the fact that <math>\sin x = \sin 180^\circ - x</math>, so <math>\sin 120^\circ = \sin 60^\circ</math>. | ||
+ | You can easily calculate <math>\sin 60^\circ</math> to be <math>\frac{\sqrt3}{2}</math> using equilateral triangles. | ||
+ | ===Solution 2=== | ||
In order to calculate the area of <math>\triangle CDM</math>, we can use the formula <math>A=\dfrac{1}{2}bh</math>, where <math>\overline{CD}</math> is the base. We already know that <math>\overline{CD}=2</math>, so the formula now becomes <math>A=h</math>. We can drop verticals down from <math>A</math> and <math>M</math> to points <math>E</math> and <math>F</math>, respectively. We can see that <math>\triangle AEC \sim \triangle MFC</math>. Now, we establish the relationship that <math>\dfrac{AE}{MF}=\dfrac{AC}{MC}</math>. We are given that <math>\overline{AC}=2</math>, and <math>M</math> is the midpoint of <math>\overline{AC}</math>, so <math>\overline{MC}=1</math>. Because <math>\triangle AEB</math> is a <math>30-60-90</math> triangle and the ratio of the sides opposite the angles are <math>1-\sqrt{3}-2</math> <math>\overline{AE}</math> is <math>\sqrt{3}</math>. Plugging those numbers in, we have <math>\dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{MF}=\dfrac{2}{1}</math>. Cross-multiplying, we see that <math>2\times\overline{MF}=\sqrt{3}\times1\implies \overline{MF}=\dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}</math> Since <math>\overline{MF}</math> is the height <math>\triangle CDM</math>, the area is <math>\boxed{\mathrm{(C)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}}</math>. | In order to calculate the area of <math>\triangle CDM</math>, we can use the formula <math>A=\dfrac{1}{2}bh</math>, where <math>\overline{CD}</math> is the base. We already know that <math>\overline{CD}=2</math>, so the formula now becomes <math>A=h</math>. We can drop verticals down from <math>A</math> and <math>M</math> to points <math>E</math> and <math>F</math>, respectively. We can see that <math>\triangle AEC \sim \triangle MFC</math>. Now, we establish the relationship that <math>\dfrac{AE}{MF}=\dfrac{AC}{MC}</math>. We are given that <math>\overline{AC}=2</math>, and <math>M</math> is the midpoint of <math>\overline{AC}</math>, so <math>\overline{MC}=1</math>. Because <math>\triangle AEB</math> is a <math>30-60-90</math> triangle and the ratio of the sides opposite the angles are <math>1-\sqrt{3}-2</math> <math>\overline{AE}</math> is <math>\sqrt{3}</math>. Plugging those numbers in, we have <math>\dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{MF}=\dfrac{2}{1}</math>. Cross-multiplying, we see that <math>2\times\overline{MF}=\sqrt{3}\times1\implies \overline{MF}=\dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}</math> Since <math>\overline{MF}</math> is the height <math>\triangle CDM</math>, the area is <math>\boxed{\mathrm{(C)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}}</math>. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ===Solution 3=== | ||
+ | Draw a line from <math>M</math> to the midpoint of <math>\overline{BC}</math>. Call the midpoint of <math>\overline{BC}</math> <math>P</math>. This is an equilateral triangle, since the two segments <math>\overline{PC}</math> and <math>\overline{MC}</math> are identical, and <math>\angle C</math> is 60°. Using the Pythagorean Theorem, point <math>M</math> to <math>\overline{BC}</math> is <math>\dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}</math>. Also, the length of <math>\overline{CD}</math> is 2, since <math>C</math> is the midpoint of <math>\overline{BD}</math>. So, our final equation is <math>\dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}\times2\over2</math>, which just leaves us with <math>\boxed{\mathrm{(C)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}}</math>. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ===Solution 4 === | ||
+ | Drop a vertical down from <math>M</math> to <math>BC</math>. Let us call the point of intersection <math>X</math> and the midpoint of <math>BC</math>, <math>Y</math>. We can observe that <math>\triangle AYC</math> and <math>\triangle MXC</math> are similar. By the Pythagorean theorem, <math>AY</math> is <math>\sqrt3</math>. Since <math>AC:MC=2:1,</math> we find <math>MX=\frac{\sqrt3}{2}.</math> Because <math>C</math> is the midpoint of <math>BD,</math> and <math>BC=2,</math> <math>CD=2.</math> Using the area formula, <math>\frac{CD*MX}{2}=\frac{\sqrt3}{2},</math> <math>\boxed{\mathrm{(C)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt{3}}{2}}.</math> | ||
+ | |||
+ | ~ sdk652 | ||
+ | |||
== See Also == | == See Also == | ||
{{AMC10 box|year=2005|ab=B|num-b=13|num-a=15}} | {{AMC10 box|year=2005|ab=B|num-b=13|num-a=15}} | ||
+ | |||
+ | [[Category:Introductory Geometry Problems]] | ||
+ | [[Category:Area Problems]] | ||
+ | {{MAA Notice}} |
Latest revision as of 16:41, 16 January 2021
Contents
Problem
Equilateral has side length , is the midpoint of , and is the midpoint of . What is the area of ?
Solutions
Solution 1 (simplest)
The area of a triangle can be given by . because it is the midpoint of a side, and because it is the same length as . Each angle of an equilateral triangle is so . The area is . Note: Even if you don't know the value of , you can use the fact that , so . You can easily calculate to be using equilateral triangles.
Solution 2
In order to calculate the area of , we can use the formula , where is the base. We already know that , so the formula now becomes . We can drop verticals down from and to points and , respectively. We can see that . Now, we establish the relationship that . We are given that , and is the midpoint of , so . Because is a triangle and the ratio of the sides opposite the angles are is . Plugging those numbers in, we have . Cross-multiplying, we see that Since is the height , the area is .
Solution 3
Draw a line from to the midpoint of . Call the midpoint of . This is an equilateral triangle, since the two segments and are identical, and is 60°. Using the Pythagorean Theorem, point to is . Also, the length of is 2, since is the midpoint of . So, our final equation is , which just leaves us with .
Solution 4
Drop a vertical down from to . Let us call the point of intersection and the midpoint of , . We can observe that and are similar. By the Pythagorean theorem, is . Since we find Because is the midpoint of and Using the area formula,
~ sdk652
See Also
2005 AMC 10B (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | ||
Preceded by Problem 13 |
Followed by Problem 15 | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 • 16 • 17 • 18 • 19 • 20 • 21 • 22 • 23 • 24 • 25 | ||
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions |
The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions.