Difference between revisions of "2005 USAMO Problems/Problem 1"
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== Solution == | == Solution == | ||
− | {{ | + | === Solution 1 (official solution) === |
+ | No such circular arrangement exists for <math>n=pq</math>, where <math>p</math> and <math>q</math> are distinct primes. In that case, the numbers to be arranged are <math>p</math>; <math>q</math> and <math>pq</math>, and in any circular arrangement, <math>p</math> and <math>q</math> will be adjacent. We claim that the desired circular arrangement exists in all other cases. If <math>n=p^e</math> where <math>e\ge2</math>, an arbitrary circular arrangement works. Henceforth we assume that <math>n</math> has prime factorization <math>p^{e_1}_{1}p^{e_2}_{2}\cdots p^{e_k}_k</math>, where <math>p_1<p_2<\cdots<p_k</math> and either <math>k>2</math> or else <math>\max(e1,e2)>1</math>. To construct the desired circular arrangement of <math>D_n:=\lbrace d:d|n\ \text{and}\ d>1\rbrace</math>, start with the circular arrangement of <math>n,p_{1}p_{2},p_{2}p_{3}\ldots,p_{k-1}p_{k}</math> as shown. | ||
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+ | Then between <math>n</math> and <math>p_{1}p_{2}</math>, place (in arbitrary order) all other members of <math>D_n</math> that have <math>p_1</math> as their smallest prime factor. Between <math>p_{1}p_{2}</math> and <math>p_{2}p_{3}</math>, place all members of <math>D_n</math> other than <math>p_{2}p_{3}</math> that have <math>p_2</math> as their smallest prime factor. Continue in this way, ending by placing <math>p_k,p^{2}_{k},\ldots,p^{e_k}_{k}</math> between <math>p_{k-1}p_k</math> and <math>n</math>. It is easy to see that each element of <math>D_n</math> is placed exactly one time, and any two adjacent elements have a common prime factor. Hence this arrangement has the desired property. | ||
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+ | ''Note.'' In graph theory terms, this construction yields a Hamiltonian cycle in the graph with vertex set <math>D_n</math> in which two vertices form an edge if the two corresponding numbers have a common prime factor. The graphs below illustrate the construction for the special cases <math>n=p^{2}q</math> and <math>n=pqr</math>. | ||
== See also == | == See also == |
Revision as of 12:21, 3 May 2008
Problem
Determine all composite positive integers for which it is possible to arrange all divisors of that are greater than 1 in a circle so that no two adjacent divisors are relatively prime.
Solution
Solution 1 (official solution)
No such circular arrangement exists for , where and are distinct primes. In that case, the numbers to be arranged are ; and , and in any circular arrangement, and will be adjacent. We claim that the desired circular arrangement exists in all other cases. If where , an arbitrary circular arrangement works. Henceforth we assume that has prime factorization , where and either or else . To construct the desired circular arrangement of , start with the circular arrangement of as shown.
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Then between and , place (in arbitrary order) all other members of that have as their smallest prime factor. Between and , place all members of other than that have as their smallest prime factor. Continue in this way, ending by placing between and . It is easy to see that each element of is placed exactly one time, and any two adjacent elements have a common prime factor. Hence this arrangement has the desired property.
Note. In graph theory terms, this construction yields a Hamiltonian cycle in the graph with vertex set in which two vertices form an edge if the two corresponding numbers have a common prime factor. The graphs below illustrate the construction for the special cases and .
See also
2005 USAMO (Problems • Resources) | ||
Preceded by First Question |
Followed by Problem 2 | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 | ||
All USAMO Problems and Solutions |