Difference between revisions of "2007 AIME I Problems/Problem 13"

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== Solution ==
 
== Solution ==
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Note first that the intersection is a [[pentagon]].
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Use 3D analytical geometry, setting the origin as the center of the square base and the pyramid’s points oriented as shown above. <math>A(-2,2,0),\ B(2,2,0),\ C(2,-2,0),\ D(-2,-2,0),\ E(0,0,2\sqrt{2})</math>. Using the coordinates of the three points of intersection (<math>(-1,1,\sqrt{2}),\ (2,0,0),\ (0,-2,0)</math>), it is possible to determine the equation of the plane. The equation of a plane resembles <math>ax + by + cz = d</math>, and using the points we find that <math>2a = d \Longrightarrow d = \frac{a}{2}</math>, <math>-2b = d \Longrightarrow d = \frac{-b}{2}</math>, and <math>-a + b + \sqrt{2}c = d \Longrightarrow -\frac{d}{2} - \frac{d}{2} + \sqrt{2}c = d \Longrightarrow c = d\sqrt{2}</math>. It is then <math>x - y + 2\sqrt{2}z = 2</math>.
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Write the equation of the lines and substitute to find that the other two points of intersection on <math>\overline{BE}</math>, <math>\overline{DE}</math> are <math>(\frac{\pm 3}{2},\frac{\pm 3}{2},\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2})</math>. To find the area of the pentagon, break it up into pieces (an [[isosceles triangle]] on the top, an [[isosceles trapezoid]] on the bottom). Using the [[distance formula]] (<math>\sqrt{a^2 + b^2 + c^2}</math>), it is possible to find that the area of the triangle is <math>\frac{1}{2}bh \Longrightarrow \frac{1}{2} 3\sqrt{2} \cdot \sqrt{\frac 52} = \frac{3\sqrt{5}}{2}</math>. The trapezoid has area <math>\frac{1}{2}h(b_1 + b_2) \Longrightarrow \frac 12\sqrt{\frac 52}(2\sqrt{2} + 3\sqrt{2}) = \frac{5\sqrt{5}}{2}</math>. In total, the area is <math>4\sqrt{5} = \sqrt{80}</math>, and the solution is <math>080</math>.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Revision as of 16:18, 20 March 2007

Problem

A square pyramid with base $ABCD$ and vertex $E$ has eight edges of length 4. A plane passes through the midpoints of $AE$, $BC$, and $CD$. The plane's intersection with the pyramid has an area that can be expressed as $\sqrt{p}$. Find $p$.

           AIME I 2007-13.png

Solution

Note first that the intersection is a pentagon.

Use 3D analytical geometry, setting the origin as the center of the square base and the pyramid’s points oriented as shown above. $A(-2,2,0),\ B(2,2,0),\ C(2,-2,0),\ D(-2,-2,0),\ E(0,0,2\sqrt{2})$. Using the coordinates of the three points of intersection ($(-1,1,\sqrt{2}),\ (2,0,0),\ (0,-2,0)$), it is possible to determine the equation of the plane. The equation of a plane resembles $ax + by + cz = d$, and using the points we find that $2a = d \Longrightarrow d = \frac{a}{2}$, $-2b = d \Longrightarrow d = \frac{-b}{2}$, and $-a + b + \sqrt{2}c = d \Longrightarrow -\frac{d}{2} - \frac{d}{2} + \sqrt{2}c = d \Longrightarrow c = d\sqrt{2}$. It is then $x - y + 2\sqrt{2}z = 2$.

Write the equation of the lines and substitute to find that the other two points of intersection on $\overline{BE}$, $\overline{DE}$ are $(\frac{\pm 3}{2},\frac{\pm 3}{2},\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2})$. To find the area of the pentagon, break it up into pieces (an isosceles triangle on the top, an isosceles trapezoid on the bottom). Using the distance formula ($\sqrt{a^2 + b^2 + c^2}$), it is possible to find that the area of the triangle is $\frac{1}{2}bh \Longrightarrow \frac{1}{2} 3\sqrt{2} \cdot \sqrt{\frac 52} = \frac{3\sqrt{5}}{2}$. The trapezoid has area $\frac{1}{2}h(b_1 + b_2) \Longrightarrow \frac 12\sqrt{\frac 52}(2\sqrt{2} + 3\sqrt{2}) = \frac{5\sqrt{5}}{2}$. In total, the area is $4\sqrt{5} = \sqrt{80}$, and the solution is $080$.

See also

2007 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 12
Followed by
Problem 14
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions
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