2007 AIME I Problems/Problem 5

Revision as of 01:15, 27 June 2018 by ACthinker (talk | contribs)

Problem

The formula for converting a Fahrenheit temperature $F$ to the corresponding Celsius temperature $C$ is $C = \frac{5}{9}(F-32).$ An integer Fahrenheit temperature is converted to Celsius, rounded to the nearest integer, converted back to Fahrenheit, and again rounded to the nearest integer.

For how many integer Fahrenheit temperatures between 32 and 1000 inclusive does the original temperature equal the final temperature?

Solution

Solution 1

Examine $F - 32$ modulo 9.

  • If $F - 32 \equiv 0 \pmod{9}$, then we can define $9x = F - 32$. This shows that $F = \left[\frac{9}{5}\left[\frac{5}{9}(F-32)\right] + 32\right] \Longrightarrow F = \left[\frac{9}{5}(5x) + 32\right] \Longrightarrow F = 9x + 32$. This case works.
  • If $F - 32 \equiv 1 \pmod{9}$, then we can define $9x + 1 = F - 32$. This shows that $F = \left[\frac{9}{5}\left[\frac{5}{9}(F-32)\right] + 32\right] \Longrightarrow F = \left[\frac{9}{5}(5x + 1) + 32\right] \Longrightarrow$$F = \left[9x + \frac{9}{5}+ 32 \right] \Longrightarrow F = 9x + 34$. So this case doesn't work.

Generalizing this, we define that $9x + k = F - 32$. Thus, $F = \left[\frac{9}{5}\left[\frac{5}{9}(9x + k)\right] + 32\right] \Longrightarrow F = \left[\frac{9}{5}(5x + \left[\frac{5}{9}k\right]) + 32\right] \Longrightarrow F = \left[\frac{9}{5} \left[\frac{5}{9}k \right] \right] + 9x + 32$. We need to find all values $0 \le k \le 8$ that $\left[ \frac{9}{5} \left[ \frac{5}{9} k \right] \right] = k$. Testing every value of $k$ shows that $k = 0, 2, 4, 5, 7$, so $5$ of every $9$ values of $k$ work.

There are $\lfloor \frac{1000 - 32}{9} \rfloor = 107$ cycles of $9$, giving $5 \cdot 107 = 535$ numbers that work. Of the remaining $6$ numbers from $995$ onwards, $995,\ 997,\ 999,\ 1000$ work, giving us $535 + 4 = 539$ as the solution.

Solution 2

Notice that $\left[ \frac{9}{5} \left[ \frac{5}{9} k \right] \right] = k$ holds if $k=\left[ \frac{9}{5}x\right]$ for some $x$. Thus, after translating from $F\to F-32$ we want count how many values of $x$ there are such that $k=\left[ \frac{9}{5}x\right]$ is an integer from $0$ to $968$. This value is computed as $\left[968*\frac{5}{9}\right]+1$, adding in the extra solution corresponding to $0$.

Solution 3

Let $c$ be a degree Celsius, and $f=\frac 95c+32$ rounded to the nearest integer. Since $f$ was rounded to the nearest integer we have $|f-((\frac 95)c+32)|\leq 1/2$, which is equivalent to $|(\frac 59)(f-32)-c|\leq \frac 5{18}$ if we multiply by $5/9$. Therefore, it must round to $c$ because $\frac 5{18}<\frac 12$ so $c$ is the closest integer. Therefore there is one solution per degree celcius in the range from $0$ to $(\frac 59)(1000-32) + 1=(\frac 59)(968) + 1=538.8$, meaning there are $539$ solutions.

See also

2007 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 4
Followed by
Problem 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. AMC logo.png

Invalid username
Login to AoPS