2007 AIME I Problems/Problem 6
A frog is placed at the origin on the number line, and moves according to the following rule: in a given move, the frog advances to either the closest point with a greater integer coordinate that is a multiple of 3, or to the closest point with a greater integer coordinate that is a multiple of 13. A move sequence is a sequence of coordinates which correspond to valid moves, beginning with 0, and ending with 39. For example, is a move sequence. How many move sequences are possible for the frog?
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Let us keep a careful tree of the possible number of paths around every multiple of .
From , we can end at either (mult. of 3) or (mult. of 13). Only path leads to the former, but there are ways to reach .
Continuing from , there is way to continue to , but there are ways to reach . Continuing from , there are ways to get to , and ways (the first 1 to make it inclusive, the second to also jump from ) to get to . Regrouping, there are ways to get to and ways to reach .
Continuing from , there are ways to continue to . Continuing from , there are (note that the 1 is not to inclusive, but to count ). In total, we get .
We divide it into 3 stages. The first occurs before the frog moves past 13. The second occurs before it moves past 26, and the last is everything else.
For the first stage the possible paths are , , , , , and . That is a total of 6.
For the second stage the possible paths are , , , , , and . That is a total of 6.
For the second stage the possible paths are , , , , and . That is a total of 5.
However, we cannot jump from or , so we must subtract .
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