Difference between revisions of "2010 AIME I Problems/Problem 4"

(Solution)
Line 2: Line 2:
 
Jackie and Phil have two fair coins and a third coin that comes up heads with [[probability]] <math>\frac47</math>. Jackie flips the three coins, and then Phil flips the three coins. Let <math>\frac {m}{n}</math> be the probability that Jackie gets the same number of heads as Phil, where <math>m</math> and <math>n</math> are [[relatively prime]] positive integers. Find <math>m + n</math>.
 
Jackie and Phil have two fair coins and a third coin that comes up heads with [[probability]] <math>\frac47</math>. Jackie flips the three coins, and then Phil flips the three coins. Let <math>\frac {m}{n}</math> be the probability that Jackie gets the same number of heads as Phil, where <math>m</math> and <math>n</math> are [[relatively prime]] positive integers. Find <math>m + n</math>.
  
== Solution ==
+
== Solution 1==
 +
This can be solved quickly and easily with generating functions.
 +
 
 +
Let <math>x^0 = 1</math> represent heads and <math>x</math> represent tails.
 +
 
 +
The generating functions for these coins are <math>(1+x)</math>,<math>(1+x)</math>,and <math>(4+3x)</math> in order.
 +
 
 +
The product is <math>3+10x+11x^2+4x^3</math>.
 +
 
 +
The sum of the coefficients squared is 784 and the sum of the squares of each coefficient is 246.
 +
The probability is then <math> \frac{246}{784} = \frac{123}{392}</math>.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
<math>123 + 392 = \boxed{515}</math>
 +
 
 +
== Solution 2==
 
We perform [[casework]] based upon the number of heads that are flipped.  
 
We perform [[casework]] based upon the number of heads that are flipped.  
  
Line 22: Line 37:
  
 
Finally, we take the sum: <math>\frac {9 + 100 + 121 + 16}{784} = \frac {246}{784} = \frac {123}{392}</math>, so our answer is <math>123 + 392 = \fbox{515}</math>.
 
Finally, we take the sum: <math>\frac {9 + 100 + 121 + 16}{784} = \frac {246}{784} = \frac {123}{392}</math>, so our answer is <math>123 + 392 = \fbox{515}</math>.
 +
 +
 +
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Revision as of 16:49, 18 November 2011

Problem

Jackie and Phil have two fair coins and a third coin that comes up heads with probability $\frac47$. Jackie flips the three coins, and then Phil flips the three coins. Let $\frac {m}{n}$ be the probability that Jackie gets the same number of heads as Phil, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m + n$.

Solution 1

This can be solved quickly and easily with generating functions.

Let $x^0 = 1$ represent heads and $x$ represent tails.

The generating functions for these coins are $(1+x)$,$(1+x)$,and $(4+3x)$ in order.

The product is $3+10x+11x^2+4x^3$.

The sum of the coefficients squared is 784 and the sum of the squares of each coefficient is 246. The probability is then $\frac{246}{784} = \frac{123}{392}$.


$123 + 392 = \boxed{515}$

Solution 2

We perform casework based upon the number of heads that are flipped.

  • Case 1: No heads.
The only possibility is TTT (the third coin being the unfair coin). The probability for this to happen to Jackie is $\frac {1}{2} \cdot \frac {1}{2} \cdot \frac {3}{7} = \frac {3}{28}$ Thus the probability for this to happen to both players is $\left(\frac {3}{28}\right)^2 = \frac {9}{784}$
  • Case 2: One head.
We can have either HTT, THT, or TTH. The first two happen to Jackie with the same $\frac {3}{28}$ chance, but the third happens $\frac {4}{28}$ of the time, since the unfair coin is heads instead of tails. With 3 possibilities for Jackie and 3 for Phil, there are a total of 9 ways for them both to have 1 head.
Multiplying and adding up all 9 ways, we have a
\[\frac {4(3 \cdot 3) + 4(3 \cdot 4) + 1(4 \cdot 4)}{28^{2}} = \frac {100}{784}\]
overall chance for this case.
  • Case 3: Two heads.
With HHT $\frac {3}{28}$, HTH $\frac {4}{28}$, and THH $\frac {4}{28}$ possible, we proceed as in Case 2, obtaining
\[\frac {1(3 \cdot 3) + 4(3 \cdot 4) + 4(4 \cdot 4)}{28^{2}} = \frac {121}{784}.\]
  • Case 4: Three heads.
Similar to Case 1, we can only have HHH, which has $\frac {4}{28}$ chance. Then in this case we get $\frac {16}{784}$

Finally, we take the sum: $\frac {9 + 100 + 121 + 16}{784} = \frac {246}{784} = \frac {123}{392}$, so our answer is $123 + 392 = \fbox{515}$.



See also

2010 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 3
Followed by
Problem 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions
Invalid username
Login to AoPS