Difference between revisions of "2011 AIME II Problems/Problem 3"

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== Problem 3 ==
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==Problem==
The degree measures of the angles in a convex 18-sided polygon form an increasing arithmetic sequence with integer values. Find the degree measure of the smallest angle.
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The degree measures of the angles in a [[convex polygon|convex]] 18-sided polygon form an increasing [[arithmetic sequence]] with integer values. Find the degree measure of the smallest [[angle]].
  
== Solution ==
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==Solution==
 
===Solution 1===
 
===Solution 1===
The average angle in an 18-gon is <math>160^\circ</math>. In an arithmetic sequence the average is the same as the median, so the middle two terms of the sequence average to <math>160^\circ</math>. Thus for some positive (the sequence is increasing and thus non-constant) integer <math>d</math>, the middle two terms are <math>(160-d)^\circ</math> and <math>(160+d)^\circ</math>. Since the step is <math>2d</math> the last term of the sequence is <math>(160 + 17d)^\circ</math>, which must be less than <math>180^\circ</math>, since the polygon is convex. This gives <math>17d < 20</math>, so the only suitable positive integer <math>d</math> is 1. The first term is then <math>(160-17)^\circ = \fbox{143^\circ.}</math>
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The average angle in an 18-gon is <math>160^\circ</math>. In an arithmetic sequence the average is the same as the median, so the middle two terms of the sequence average to <math>160^\circ</math>. Thus for some positive (the sequence is increasing and thus non-constant) integer <math>d</math>, the middle two terms are <math>(160-d)^\circ</math> and <math>(160+d)^\circ</math>. Since the step is <math>2d</math> the last term of the sequence is <math>(160 + 17d)^\circ</math>, which must be less than <math>180^\circ</math>, since the polygon is convex. This gives <math>17d < 20</math>, so the only suitable positive integer <math>d</math> is 1. The first term is then <math>(160-17)^\circ = \fbox{143}.</math>
  
 
===Solution 2===
 
===Solution 2===
You could also solve this problem with exterior angles. Exterior angles of any polygon add up to <math>360^{\circ}</math>. Since there are <math>18</math> exterior angles in an 18-gon, the average measure of an exterior angles is <math>\frac{360}{18}=20^\circ</math>. We know from the problem that since the exterior angles must be in an arithmetic sequence, the median and average of them is <math>20</math>. Since there are even number of exterior angles, the middle two must be <math>19^\circ</math> and <math>21^\circ</math>, and the difference between terms must be <math>2</math>. Check to make sure the smallest exterior angle is greater than <math>0</math>: <math>19-2(8)=19-16=3^\circ</math>. It is, so the greatest exterior angle is <math>21+2(8)=21+16=37^\circ</math> and the smallest interior angle is <math>180-37=\boxed{143}</math>.
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Another way to solve this problem would be to use exterior angles. [[Exterior angle]]s of any polygon add up to <math>360^{\circ}</math>. Since there are <math>18</math> exterior angles in an 18-gon, the average measure of an exterior angles is <math>\frac{360}{18}=20^\circ</math>. We know from the problem that since the exterior angles must be in an arithmetic sequence, the median and average of them is <math>20</math>. Since there are even number of exterior angles, the middle two must be <math>19^\circ</math> and <math>21^\circ</math>, and the difference between terms must be <math>2</math>. Check to make sure the smallest exterior angle is greater than <math>0</math>: <math>19-2(8)=19-16=3^\circ</math>. It is, so the greatest exterior angle is <math>21+2(8)=21+16=37^\circ</math> and the smallest interior angle is <math>180-37=\boxed{143}</math>.
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===Solution 3===
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The sum of the angles in a 18-gon is <math>(18-2) \cdot 180^\circ = 2880 ^\circ.</math> Because the angles are in an arithmetic sequence, we can also write the sum of the angles as <math>a+(a+d)+(a+2d)+\dots+(a+17d)=18a+153d,</math> where <math>a</math> is the smallest angle and <math>d</math> is the common difference. Since these two are equal, we know that <math>18a+153d = 2880 ^\circ,</math> or <math>2a+17d = 320^\circ.</math> The smallest value of <math>d</math> that satisfies this is <math>d=2,</math> so <math>a=143.</math> There are other values of <math>d</math> and <math>a</math> that satisfy that equation, but if we tried any of them the last angle would be greater then <math>180,</math> so the only value of <math>a</math> that works is <math>a=\boxed{143}</math>.
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~Eclipse471
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==See also==
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{{AIME box|year=2011|n=II|num-b=2|num-a=4}}
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[[Category:Intermediate Geometry Problems]]
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{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 14:38, 29 May 2020

Problem

The degree measures of the angles in a convex 18-sided polygon form an increasing arithmetic sequence with integer values. Find the degree measure of the smallest angle.

Solution

Solution 1

The average angle in an 18-gon is $160^\circ$. In an arithmetic sequence the average is the same as the median, so the middle two terms of the sequence average to $160^\circ$. Thus for some positive (the sequence is increasing and thus non-constant) integer $d$, the middle two terms are $(160-d)^\circ$ and $(160+d)^\circ$. Since the step is $2d$ the last term of the sequence is $(160 + 17d)^\circ$, which must be less than $180^\circ$, since the polygon is convex. This gives $17d < 20$, so the only suitable positive integer $d$ is 1. The first term is then $(160-17)^\circ = \fbox{143}.$

Solution 2

Another way to solve this problem would be to use exterior angles. Exterior angles of any polygon add up to $360^{\circ}$. Since there are $18$ exterior angles in an 18-gon, the average measure of an exterior angles is $\frac{360}{18}=20^\circ$. We know from the problem that since the exterior angles must be in an arithmetic sequence, the median and average of them is $20$. Since there are even number of exterior angles, the middle two must be $19^\circ$ and $21^\circ$, and the difference between terms must be $2$. Check to make sure the smallest exterior angle is greater than $0$: $19-2(8)=19-16=3^\circ$. It is, so the greatest exterior angle is $21+2(8)=21+16=37^\circ$ and the smallest interior angle is $180-37=\boxed{143}$.

Solution 3

The sum of the angles in a 18-gon is $(18-2) \cdot 180^\circ = 2880 ^\circ.$ Because the angles are in an arithmetic sequence, we can also write the sum of the angles as $a+(a+d)+(a+2d)+\dots+(a+17d)=18a+153d,$ where $a$ is the smallest angle and $d$ is the common difference. Since these two are equal, we know that $18a+153d = 2880 ^\circ,$ or $2a+17d = 320^\circ.$ The smallest value of $d$ that satisfies this is $d=2,$ so $a=143.$ There are other values of $d$ and $a$ that satisfy that equation, but if we tried any of them the last angle would be greater then $180,$ so the only value of $a$ that works is $a=\boxed{143}$. ~Eclipse471

See also

2011 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 2
Followed by
Problem 4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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