2011 AIME II Problems/Problem 4

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Problem 4

In triangle $ABC$, $AB=\frac{20}{11} AC$. The angle bisector of $\ang A$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Undefined control sequence.) intersects $BC$ at point $D$, and point $M$ is the midpoint of $AD$. Let $P$ be the point of the intersection of $AC$ and $BM$. The ratio of $CP$ to $PA$ can be expressed in the form $\dfrac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

Solution

Solution 1

[asy] pointpen = black; pathpen = linewidth(0.7);  pair A = (0,0), C= (11,0), B=IP(CR(A,20),CR(C,18)), D = IP(B--C,CR(B,20/31*abs(B-C))), M = (A+D)/2, P = IP(M--2*M-B, A--C), D2 = IP(D--D+P-B, A--C);  D(MP("A",D(A))--MP("B",D(B),N)--MP("C",D(C))--cycle); D(A--MP("D",D(D),NE)--MP("D'",D(D2))); D(B--MP("P",D(P))); D(MP("M",M,NW)); MP("20",(B+D)/2,ENE); MP("11",(C+D)/2,ENE);  [/asy] Let $D'$ be on $\overline{AC}$ such that $BP \parallel DD'$. It follows that $\triangle BPC \sim \triangle DD'C$, so \[\frac{PC}{D'C} = 1 + \frac{BD}{DC} = 1 + \frac{AB}{AC} = \frac{31}{11}\] by the Angle Bisector Theorem. Similarly, we see by the midline theorem that $AP = PD'$. Thus, \[\frac{CP}{PA} = \frac{1}{\frac{PD'}{PC}} = \frac{1}{1 - \frac{D'C}{PC}} = \frac{31}{20},\] and $m+n = \boxed{051}$.

Solution 2

Assign mass points as follows: by Angle-Bisector Theorem, $BD / DC = 20/11$, so we assign $m(B) = 11, m(C) = 20, m(D) = 31$. Since $AM = MD$, then $m(A) = 31$, and $\frac{CP}{PA} = \frac{m(A) }{ m(C)} = \frac{31}{20}$.

Solution 3

By Menelaus' Theorem on $\triangle ACD$ with transversal $PB$, \[1 = \frac{CP}{PA} \cdot \frac{AM}{MD} \cdot \frac{DB}{CB} = \frac{CP}{PA} \cdot \left(\frac{1}{1+\frac{AC}{AB}}\right) \quad \Longrightarrow \quad \frac{CP}{PA} = \frac{31}{20}.\] [/hide]

See also

2011 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 3
Followed by
Problem 5
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All AIME Problems and Solutions
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