Difference between revisions of "2012 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 22"

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== Problem 22 ==
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== Problem ==
  
The sum of the first <math>m</math> positive odd integers is 212 more than the sum of the first <math>n</math> positive even integers. What is the sum of all possible values of <math>n</math>?
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The sum of the first <math>m</math> positive odd integers is <math>212</math> more than the sum of the first <math>n</math> positive even integers. What is the sum of all possible values of <math>n</math>?
  
 
<math> \textbf{(A)}\ 255\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 256\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 257\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 258\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 259 </math>
 
<math> \textbf{(A)}\ 255\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 256\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 257\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 258\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 259 </math>
  
== Solution ==
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== Solution 1==
  
 
The sum of the first <math>m</math> odd integers is given by <math>m^2</math>. The sum of the first <math>n</math> even integers is given by <math>n(n+1)</math>.
 
The sum of the first <math>m</math> odd integers is given by <math>m^2</math>. The sum of the first <math>n</math> even integers is given by <math>n(n+1)</math>.
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Thus, <math>m^2 = n^2 + n + 212</math>. Since we want to solve for n, rearrange as a quadratic equation: <math>n^2 + n + (212 - m^2) = 0</math>.
 
Thus, <math>m^2 = n^2 + n + 212</math>. Since we want to solve for n, rearrange as a quadratic equation: <math>n^2 + n + (212 - m^2) = 0</math>.
  
Use the quadratic formula: <math>n = \frac{-1 + \sqrt{1 - 4(212 - m^2)}}{2}</math>. <math>n</math> is clearly an integer, so <math>1 - 4(212 - m^2) = 4m^2 - 847</math> must be not only a perfect square, but also an odd perfect square. This is because the entire expression must be an integer, and for the numerator to be even (divisible by 2), <math>4m^2 - 847</math> must be odd.
 
  
Let <math>x</math> = <math>\sqrt{4m^2 - 847}</math>. (Note that this means that <math>n = \frac{-1 + x}{2}</math>.) This can be rewritten as <math>x^2 = 4m^2 - 847</math>, which can then be rewritten to <math>4m^2 - x^2 = 847</math>. Factor the left side by using the difference of squares. <math>(2m + x)(2m - x) = 847 = 7*11^2</math>.
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Use the quadratic formula: <math>n = \frac{-1 + \sqrt{1 - 4(212 - m^2)}}{2}</math>. Since <math>n</math> is clearly an integer, <math>1 - 4(212 - m^2) = 4m^2 - 847</math> must be not only a perfect square, but also an odd perfect square for <math>n</math> to be an integer.
  
Our goal is to find possible values for <math>a</math>, then use the equation above to find <math>n</math>. The difference between the factors is <math>(2m + a) - (2m - a) = 2m + a - 2m + a = 2a.</math> We have three pairs of factors, <math>847*1, 7*121, and 11*77</math>. The differences between these factors are <math>846</math>, <math>114</math>, and <math>66</math> - those are all possible values for <math>2a</math>. Thus the possibilities for <math>a</math> are <math>423</math>, <math>57</math>, and <math>33</math>.
 
  
Now plug in these values into the equation <math>n = \frac{-1 + x}{2}</math>. <math>n</math> can equal <math>211</math>, <math>28</math>, or <math>16</math>. Add <math>211 + 28 + 16 = 255</math>. The answer is <math>\qquad\textbf{(B)}</math>.
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Let <math>x = \sqrt{4m^2 - 847}</math>; note that this means <math>n = \frac{-1 + x}{2}</math>. It can be rewritten as <math>x^2 = 4m^2 - 847</math>, so <math>4m^2 - x^2 = 847</math>. Factoring the left side by using the difference of squares, we get <math>(2m + x)(2m - x) = 847 = 7\cdot11^2</math>.
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 +
 
 +
Our goal is to find possible values for <math>x</math>, then use the equation above to find <math>n</math>. The difference between the factors is <math>(2m + x) - (2m - x) = 2m + x - 2m + x = 2x.</math> We have three pairs of factors, <math>847\cdot1, 121\cdot 7,</math> and <math>77\cdot 11</math>. The differences between these factors are <math>846</math>, <math>114</math>, and <math>66</math> - those are all possible values for <math>2x</math>. Thus the possibilities for <math>x</math> are <math>423</math>, <math>57</math>, and <math>33</math>.
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Now plug in these values into the equation <math>n = \frac{-1 + x}{2}</math>, so <math>n</math> can equal <math>211</math>, <math>28</math>, or <math>16</math>, hence the answer is <math>\boxed{\textbf{(A)}\ 255}</math>.
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~Edits by BakedPotato66
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==Solution 2==
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As above, start off by noting that the sum of the first <math>m</math> odd integers <math>= m^2</math> and the sum of the first <math>n</math> even integers <math>= n(n+1)</math>. Clearly <math>m > n</math>, so let <math>m = n + a</math>, where <math>a</math> is some positive integer. We have:
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<math>(n+a)^2 = n(n+1) + 212</math>.
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Expanding, grouping like terms and factoring, we get:
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<math>n = \frac{(212 - a^2)}{(2a - 1)}</math>.
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We know that <math>n</math> and <math>a</math> are both positive integers, so we need only check values of <math>a</math> from <math>1</math> to <math>14</math> (<math>14^2 = 196 < 212 < 15^2 = 225</math>). Plugging in, the only values of <math>a</math> that give integral solutions are <math>1, 4,</math> and <math>6</math>. These gives <math>n</math> values of <math>211, 28,</math> and <math>16</math>, respectively. <math>211 + 28 + 16 = 255</math>. Hence, the answer is <math>\boxed{\textbf{(A)}\ 255}</math>.
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==Solution 3==
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Using the closed forms for the sums, we get <math>m^2=n(n+1)+212</math>, or <math>m^2=n^2+n+212</math>. We would like to factor this equation, but the current expressions don't allow for this. So we multiply both sides by 4 to let us complete the square. Our equation is now <math>4m^2=4n^2+4n+848</math>. Complete the square on the right hand side: <math>4m^2=(4n^2+4n+1)+848-1=(2n+1)^2+847</math>. Move over the <math>(2n+1)^2</math> and factor to get <math>(2m-2n-1)(2m+2n+1)=847=7\cdot11\cdot11</math>. The second factor is clearly greater than the first, and the only possible factor pairs are <math>1</math> and <math>847</math>, <math>7</math> and <math>121</math>, <math>11</math> and <math>77</math>. In each of these cases, solve for <math>m</math> and <math>n</math> and we find the solutions <math>(m,n)=(212,211), (32,28), (22,16)</math>. The sum of all possible values of <math>n</math> is <math>211+28+16=\boxed{\textbf{(A)}\ 255}</math>.
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==Video Solution by Richard Rusczyk==
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https://artofproblemsolving.com/videos/amc/2012amc10a/252
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 +
~dolphin7
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== See Also ==
 +
 
 +
{{AMC10 box|year=2012|ab=A|num-b=21|num-a=23}}
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{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 09:50, 26 July 2021

Problem

The sum of the first $m$ positive odd integers is $212$ more than the sum of the first $n$ positive even integers. What is the sum of all possible values of $n$?

$\textbf{(A)}\ 255\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 256\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 257\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 258\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 259$

Solution 1

The sum of the first $m$ odd integers is given by $m^2$. The sum of the first $n$ even integers is given by $n(n+1)$.

Thus, $m^2 = n^2 + n + 212$. Since we want to solve for n, rearrange as a quadratic equation: $n^2 + n + (212 - m^2) = 0$.


Use the quadratic formula: $n = \frac{-1 + \sqrt{1 - 4(212 - m^2)}}{2}$. Since $n$ is clearly an integer, $1 - 4(212 - m^2) = 4m^2 - 847$ must be not only a perfect square, but also an odd perfect square for $n$ to be an integer.


Let $x = \sqrt{4m^2 - 847}$; note that this means $n = \frac{-1 + x}{2}$. It can be rewritten as $x^2 = 4m^2 - 847$, so $4m^2 - x^2 = 847$. Factoring the left side by using the difference of squares, we get $(2m + x)(2m - x) = 847 = 7\cdot11^2$.


Our goal is to find possible values for $x$, then use the equation above to find $n$. The difference between the factors is $(2m + x) - (2m - x) = 2m + x - 2m + x = 2x.$ We have three pairs of factors, $847\cdot1, 121\cdot 7,$ and $77\cdot 11$. The differences between these factors are $846$, $114$, and $66$ - those are all possible values for $2x$. Thus the possibilities for $x$ are $423$, $57$, and $33$.

Now plug in these values into the equation $n = \frac{-1 + x}{2}$, so $n$ can equal $211$, $28$, or $16$, hence the answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(A)}\ 255}$.

~Edits by BakedPotato66

Solution 2

As above, start off by noting that the sum of the first $m$ odd integers $= m^2$ and the sum of the first $n$ even integers $= n(n+1)$. Clearly $m > n$, so let $m = n + a$, where $a$ is some positive integer. We have:

$(n+a)^2 = n(n+1) + 212$. Expanding, grouping like terms and factoring, we get: $n = \frac{(212 - a^2)}{(2a - 1)}$.

We know that $n$ and $a$ are both positive integers, so we need only check values of $a$ from $1$ to $14$ ($14^2 = 196 < 212 < 15^2 = 225$). Plugging in, the only values of $a$ that give integral solutions are $1, 4,$ and $6$. These gives $n$ values of $211, 28,$ and $16$, respectively. $211 + 28 + 16 = 255$. Hence, the answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(A)}\ 255}$.

Solution 3

Using the closed forms for the sums, we get $m^2=n(n+1)+212$, or $m^2=n^2+n+212$. We would like to factor this equation, but the current expressions don't allow for this. So we multiply both sides by 4 to let us complete the square. Our equation is now $4m^2=4n^2+4n+848$. Complete the square on the right hand side: $4m^2=(4n^2+4n+1)+848-1=(2n+1)^2+847$. Move over the $(2n+1)^2$ and factor to get $(2m-2n-1)(2m+2n+1)=847=7\cdot11\cdot11$. The second factor is clearly greater than the first, and the only possible factor pairs are $1$ and $847$, $7$ and $121$, $11$ and $77$. In each of these cases, solve for $m$ and $n$ and we find the solutions $(m,n)=(212,211), (32,28), (22,16)$. The sum of all possible values of $n$ is $211+28+16=\boxed{\textbf{(A)}\ 255}$.


Video Solution by Richard Rusczyk

https://artofproblemsolving.com/videos/amc/2012amc10a/252

~dolphin7

See Also

2012 AMC 10A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 21
Followed by
Problem 23
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