2013 AIME II Problems/Problem 13
In , , and point is on so that . Let be the midpoint of . Given that and , the area of can be expressed in the form , where and are positive integers and is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find .
We can set . Set , therefore . Thereafter, by Stewart's Theorem on and cevian , we get . Also apply Stewart's Theorem on with cevian . After simplification, . Therefore, . Finally, note that (using  for area) , because of base-ratios. Using Heron's Formula on , as it is simplest, we see that , so your answer is .
After drawing the figure, we suppose , so that , , and .
Using Law of Cosines for and ,we get
So, , we get
Using Law of Cosines in , we get
Using Law of Cosines in and , we get
, and according to , we can get
Using and , we can solve and .
Finally, we use Law of Cosines for ,
then , so the height of this is .
Then the area of is , so the answer is .
Let be the foot of the altitude from with other points labelled as shown below. Now we proceed using mass points. To balance along the segment , we assign a mass of and a mass of . Therefore, has a mass of . As is the midpoint of , we must assign a mass of as well. This gives a mass of and a mass of .
Now let be the base of the triangle, and let be the height. Then as , and as , we know that Also, as , we know that . Therefore, by the Pythagorean Theorem on , we know that
Also, as , we know that . Furthermore, as , and as , we know that and , so . Therefore, by the Pythagorean Theorem on , we get Solving this system of equations yields and . Therefore, the area of the triangle is , giving us an answer of .
Let the coordinates of A, B and C be (-a, 0), (a, 0) and (0, h) respectively. Then and implies ; implies Solve this system of equations simultaneously, and . Area of the triangle is ah = , giving us an answer of .
Let . Then and . Also, let . Using Stewart's Theorem on gives us the equation or, after simplifying, . We use Stewart's again on : , which becomes . Substituting , we see that , or . Then .
We now use Law of Cosines on . . Plugging in for and , , so . Using the Pythagorean trig identity , , so .
, and our answer is .
Note to writter: Couldn't we just use Heron's formula for after is solved then noticing that ?
Solution 6 (Barycentric Coordinates)
Let ABC be the reference triangle, with , , and . We can easily calculate and subsequently . Using distance formula on and gives
But we know that , so we can substitute and now we have two equations and two variables. So we can clear the denominators and prepare to cancel a variable:
Then we add the equations to get
Then plugging gives and . Then the height from is , and the area is and our answer is .
Let and . It is trivial to show that and . Thus, since and , we get that
Multiplying both equations by , we get that
Solving these equations, we get that and .
Thus, the area of is , so our answer is .
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