Difference between revisions of "2013 AIME I Problems/Problem 12"

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== Problem 12 ==
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== Problem ==
 
Let <math>\bigtriangleup PQR</math> be a triangle with <math>\angle P = 75^\circ</math> and <math>\angle Q = 60^\circ</math>. A regular hexagon <math>ABCDEF</math> with side length 1 is drawn inside <math>\triangle PQR</math> so that side <math>\overline{AB}</math> lies on <math>\overline{PQ}</math>, side <math>\overline{CD}</math> lies on <math>\overline{QR}</math>, and one of the remaining vertices lies on <math>\overline{RP}</math>. There are positive integers <math>a, b, c, </math> and <math>d</math> such that the area of <math>\triangle PQR</math> can be expressed in the form <math>\frac{a+b\sqrt{c}}{d}</math>, where <math>a</math> and <math>d</math> are relatively prime, and c is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find <math>a+b+c+d</math>.
 
Let <math>\bigtriangleup PQR</math> be a triangle with <math>\angle P = 75^\circ</math> and <math>\angle Q = 60^\circ</math>. A regular hexagon <math>ABCDEF</math> with side length 1 is drawn inside <math>\triangle PQR</math> so that side <math>\overline{AB}</math> lies on <math>\overline{PQ}</math>, side <math>\overline{CD}</math> lies on <math>\overline{QR}</math>, and one of the remaining vertices lies on <math>\overline{RP}</math>. There are positive integers <math>a, b, c, </math> and <math>d</math> such that the area of <math>\triangle PQR</math> can be expressed in the form <math>\frac{a+b\sqrt{c}}{d}</math>, where <math>a</math> and <math>d</math> are relatively prime, and c is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find <math>a+b+c+d</math>.
  
 
== Solution 1 ==
 
== Solution 1 ==
 
First, find that <math>\angle R = 45^\circ</math>.
 
First, find that <math>\angle R = 45^\circ</math>.
Draw <math>ABCDEF</math>. Now draw <math>\bigtriangleup PQR</math> around <math>ABCDEF</math> such that <math>Q</math> is adjacent to <math>C</math> and <math>D</math>. The height of <math>ABCDEF</math> is <math>\sqrt{3}</math>, so the length of base <math>QR</math> is <math>2+\sqrt{3}</math>. Let the equation of <math>\overline{RP}</math> be <math>y = x</math>. Then, the equation of <math>\overline{PQ}</math> is <math>y = -\sqrt{3} (x - (2+\sqrt{3})) \to y = -x\sqrt{3} + 2\sqrt{3} + 3</math>. Solving the two equations gives <math>y = x = \frac{\sqrt{3} + 3}{2}</math>. The area of <math>\bigtriangleup PQR</math> is <math>\frac{1}{2} * (2 + \sqrt{3}) * \frac{\sqrt{3} + 3}{2} = \frac{5\sqrt{3} + 9}{4}</math>. <math>a + b + c + d = 9 + 5 + 3 + 4 = \boxed{21}</math>
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Draw <math>ABCDEF</math>. Now draw <math>\bigtriangleup PQR</math> around <math>ABCDEF</math> such that <math>Q</math> is adjacent to <math>C</math> and <math>D</math>. The height of <math>ABCDEF</math> is <math>\sqrt{3}</math>, so the length of base <math>QR</math> is <math>2+\sqrt{3}</math>. Let the equation of <math>\overline{RP}</math> be <math>y = x</math>. Then, the equation of <math>\overline{PQ}</math> is <math>y = -\sqrt{3} (x - (2+\sqrt{3})) \to y = -x\sqrt{3} + 2\sqrt{3} + 3</math>. Solving the two equations gives <math>y = x = \frac{\sqrt{3} + 3}{2}</math>. The area of <math>\bigtriangleup PQR</math> is <math>\frac{1}{2} * (2 + \sqrt{3}) * \frac{\sqrt{3} + 3}{2} = \frac{5\sqrt{3} + 9}{4}</math>. <math>a + b + c + d = 9 + 5 + 3 + 4 = \boxed{021}</math>
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==Solution 2 (Cartesian Variation)==
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Use coordinates. Call <math>Q</math> the origin and <math>QP</math> be on the x-axis. It is easy to see that <math>F</math> is the vertex on <math>RP</math>. After labeling coordinates (noting additionally that <math>QBC</math> is an equilateral triangle), we see that the area is <math>QP</math> times <math>0.5</math> times the coordinate of <math>R</math>. Draw a perpendicular of <math>F</math>, call it <math>H</math>, and note that <math>QP = 1 + \sqrt{3}</math> after using the trig functions for <math>75</math> degrees.
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Now, get the lines for <math>QR</math> and <math>RP</math>: <math>y=\sqrt{3}x</math> and <math>y=-(2+\sqrt{3})x + (5+\sqrt{3})</math>, whereupon we get the ordinate of <math>R</math> to be <math>\frac{3+2\sqrt{3}}{2}</math>, and the area is <math>\frac{5\sqrt{3} + 9}{4}</math>, so our answer is <math>\boxed{021}</math>.
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== Solution 3 (Trig) ==
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Angle chasing yields that both triangles <math>PAF</math> and <math>PQR</math> are <math>75</math>-<math>60</math>-<math>45</math> triangles. First look at triangle <math>PAF</math>. Using Law of Sines, we find:
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<math>\frac{\frac{\sqrt{6} + \sqrt{2}}{4}}{1} = \frac{\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}}{PA}</math>
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Simplifying, we find <math>PA = \sqrt{3} - 1</math>.
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Since <math>\angle{Q} = 60^\circ</math>, WLOG assume triangle <math>BQC</math> is equilateral, so <math>BQ = 1</math>. So <math>PQ = \sqrt{3} + 1</math>.
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Apply Law of Sines again,
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<math>\frac{\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}}{\sqrt{3} + 1} = \frac{\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}}{PR}</math>
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 +
Simplifying, we find <math>PR = \frac{\sqrt{6}}{2} \cdot (1 + \sqrt{3})</math>.
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<math>[PQR] = \frac{1}{2} \cdot PQ \cdot PR \cdot \sin 75^\circ</math>.
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Evaluating and reducing, we get <math>\frac{9 + 5\sqrt{3}}{4}, </math>thus the answer is <math> \boxed{021}</math>
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==Solution 4 (Trig)==
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[[File:2013_AIME_I_Problem_12.png]]
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With some simple angle chasing we can show that <math>\triangle OJL</math> and <math>\triangle MPL</math> are congruent. This means we have a large equilateral triangle with side length <math>3</math> and quadrilateral <math>OJQN</math>. We know that <math>[OJQN] = [\triangle NQL] - [\triangle OJL]</math>. Using Law of Sines and the fact that <math>\angle N = 45^{\circ}</math> we know that <math>\overline{NL} = \sqrt{6}</math> and the height to that side is <math>\frac{\sqrt{3} -1}{\sqrt{2}}</math> so <math>[\triangle NQL] = \frac{3-\sqrt{3}}{2}</math>. Using an extremely similar process we can show that <math>\overline{OJ} = 2-\sqrt{3}</math> which means the height to <math>\overline{LJ}</math> is <math>\frac{2\sqrt{3}-3}{2}</math>. So the area of <math>\triangle OJL = \frac{2\sqrt{3}-3}{4}</math>. This means the area of quadrilateral <math>OJQN = \frac{3-\sqrt{3}}{2} - \frac{2\sqrt{3}-3}{4} = \frac{9-4\sqrt{3}}{4}</math>. So the area of our larger triangle is <math>\frac{9-4\sqrt{3}}{4} + \frac{9\sqrt{3}}{4} = \frac{9+5\sqrt{3}}{4}</math>. Therefore <math>9+5+3+4=021</math>.
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==Solution 5 (Elementary Geo)==
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We can find that <math>AF || CD || QR</math>. This means that the perpendicular from <math>P</math> to <math>QR</math> is perpendicular to <math>AF</math> as well, so let that perpendicular intersect <math>AF</math> at <math>G</math>, and the perpendicular intersect <math>QR</math> at <math>H</math>. Set <math>AP=x</math>. Note that <math>\angle {PAG} = 60^\circ</math>, so <math>AG=\frac{x}{2}</math> and <math>PG = GF = \frac{x\sqrt3}{2}</math>. Also, <math>1=AF=AG+GF=\frac{x}{2} + \frac{x\sqrt{3}}{2}</math>, so <math>x=\sqrt{3} - 1</math>. It's easy to calculate the area now, because the perpendicular from <math>P</math> to <math>QR</math> splits <math>\triangle{PQR}</math> into a <math>30-60-90</math> (PHQ) and a <math>45-45-90</math> (PHR). From these triangles' ratios, it should follow that <math>QH=\frac{\sqrt{3} + 1}{2}, PH=HR=\frac{\sqrt{3}+3}{2}</math>, so the area is <math>\frac{1}{2} * PH * QR = \frac{1}{2} * PH * (QH + HR) = \frac{1}{2} * \frac{\sqrt{3} + 3}{2} * \frac{2\sqrt{3}+4}{2} = \boxed{\frac{9+5\sqrt{3}}{4}}</math>. <math>9+5+3+4=021</math>.
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By Mathscienceclass
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==Solution 6 (Combination of 1 & 2)==
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We can observe that <math>RD=DF</math> (because <math>\angle R</math> & <math>\angle RFD</math> are both <math>45^\circ</math>). Thus we know that <math>RD</math> is equivalent to the height of the hexagon, which is <math>\sqrt3</math>. Now we look at triangle <math>\triangle AFP</math> and apply the Law of Sines to it. <math>\frac{1}{\sin{75}}=\frac{AP}{\sin{45}}</math>. From here we can solve for <math>AP</math> and get that <math>AP=\sqrt{3}-1</math>. Now we use the Sine formula for the area of a triangle with sides <math>RQ</math>, <math>PQ</math>, and <math>\angle {RQP}</math> to get the answer. Setting <math>PQ=\sqrt{3}+1</math> and <math>QR=\sqrt{3}+2</math> we get the expression <math>\frac{(\sqrt{3}+1)(\sqrt{3}+2)(\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2})}{2}</math> which is  <math>\frac{9 + 5\sqrt{3}}{4}</math>. Thus our final answer is <math>9+5+3+4=\fbox{021}</math>.
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By AwesomeLife_Math
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
 
{{AIME box|year=2013|n=I|num-b=11|num-a=13}}
 
{{AIME box|year=2013|n=I|num-b=11|num-a=13}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 11:11, 10 August 2021

Problem

Let $\bigtriangleup PQR$ be a triangle with $\angle P = 75^\circ$ and $\angle Q = 60^\circ$. A regular hexagon $ABCDEF$ with side length 1 is drawn inside $\triangle PQR$ so that side $\overline{AB}$ lies on $\overline{PQ}$, side $\overline{CD}$ lies on $\overline{QR}$, and one of the remaining vertices lies on $\overline{RP}$. There are positive integers $a, b, c,$ and $d$ such that the area of $\triangle PQR$ can be expressed in the form $\frac{a+b\sqrt{c}}{d}$, where $a$ and $d$ are relatively prime, and c is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find $a+b+c+d$.

Solution 1

First, find that $\angle R = 45^\circ$. Draw $ABCDEF$. Now draw $\bigtriangleup PQR$ around $ABCDEF$ such that $Q$ is adjacent to $C$ and $D$. The height of $ABCDEF$ is $\sqrt{3}$, so the length of base $QR$ is $2+\sqrt{3}$. Let the equation of $\overline{RP}$ be $y = x$. Then, the equation of $\overline{PQ}$ is $y = -\sqrt{3} (x - (2+\sqrt{3})) \to y = -x\sqrt{3} + 2\sqrt{3} + 3$. Solving the two equations gives $y = x = \frac{\sqrt{3} + 3}{2}$. The area of $\bigtriangleup PQR$ is $\frac{1}{2} * (2 + \sqrt{3}) * \frac{\sqrt{3} + 3}{2} = \frac{5\sqrt{3} + 9}{4}$. $a + b + c + d = 9 + 5 + 3 + 4 = \boxed{021}$

Solution 2 (Cartesian Variation)

Use coordinates. Call $Q$ the origin and $QP$ be on the x-axis. It is easy to see that $F$ is the vertex on $RP$. After labeling coordinates (noting additionally that $QBC$ is an equilateral triangle), we see that the area is $QP$ times $0.5$ times the coordinate of $R$. Draw a perpendicular of $F$, call it $H$, and note that $QP = 1 + \sqrt{3}$ after using the trig functions for $75$ degrees.

Now, get the lines for $QR$ and $RP$: $y=\sqrt{3}x$ and $y=-(2+\sqrt{3})x + (5+\sqrt{3})$, whereupon we get the ordinate of $R$ to be $\frac{3+2\sqrt{3}}{2}$, and the area is $\frac{5\sqrt{3} + 9}{4}$, so our answer is $\boxed{021}$.

Solution 3 (Trig)

Angle chasing yields that both triangles $PAF$ and $PQR$ are $75$-$60$-$45$ triangles. First look at triangle $PAF$. Using Law of Sines, we find:

$\frac{\frac{\sqrt{6} + \sqrt{2}}{4}}{1} = \frac{\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}}{PA}$

Simplifying, we find $PA = \sqrt{3} - 1$. Since $\angle{Q} = 60^\circ$, WLOG assume triangle $BQC$ is equilateral, so $BQ = 1$. So $PQ = \sqrt{3} + 1$.

Apply Law of Sines again,

$\frac{\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}}{\sqrt{3} + 1} = \frac{\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}}{PR}$

Simplifying, we find $PR = \frac{\sqrt{6}}{2} \cdot (1 + \sqrt{3})$.

$[PQR] = \frac{1}{2} \cdot PQ \cdot PR \cdot \sin 75^\circ$.

Evaluating and reducing, we get $\frac{9 + 5\sqrt{3}}{4},$thus the answer is $\boxed{021}$

Solution 4 (Trig)

2013 AIME I Problem 12.png

With some simple angle chasing we can show that $\triangle OJL$ and $\triangle MPL$ are congruent. This means we have a large equilateral triangle with side length $3$ and quadrilateral $OJQN$. We know that $[OJQN] = [\triangle NQL] - [\triangle OJL]$. Using Law of Sines and the fact that $\angle N = 45^{\circ}$ we know that $\overline{NL} = \sqrt{6}$ and the height to that side is $\frac{\sqrt{3} -1}{\sqrt{2}}$ so $[\triangle NQL] = \frac{3-\sqrt{3}}{2}$. Using an extremely similar process we can show that $\overline{OJ} = 2-\sqrt{3}$ which means the height to $\overline{LJ}$ is $\frac{2\sqrt{3}-3}{2}$. So the area of $\triangle OJL = \frac{2\sqrt{3}-3}{4}$. This means the area of quadrilateral $OJQN = \frac{3-\sqrt{3}}{2} - \frac{2\sqrt{3}-3}{4} = \frac{9-4\sqrt{3}}{4}$. So the area of our larger triangle is $\frac{9-4\sqrt{3}}{4} + \frac{9\sqrt{3}}{4} = \frac{9+5\sqrt{3}}{4}$. Therefore $9+5+3+4=021$.

Solution 5 (Elementary Geo)

We can find that $AF || CD || QR$. This means that the perpendicular from $P$ to $QR$ is perpendicular to $AF$ as well, so let that perpendicular intersect $AF$ at $G$, and the perpendicular intersect $QR$ at $H$. Set $AP=x$. Note that $\angle {PAG} = 60^\circ$, so $AG=\frac{x}{2}$ and $PG = GF = \frac{x\sqrt3}{2}$. Also, $1=AF=AG+GF=\frac{x}{2} + \frac{x\sqrt{3}}{2}$, so $x=\sqrt{3} - 1$. It's easy to calculate the area now, because the perpendicular from $P$ to $QR$ splits $\triangle{PQR}$ into a $30-60-90$ (PHQ) and a $45-45-90$ (PHR). From these triangles' ratios, it should follow that $QH=\frac{\sqrt{3} + 1}{2}, PH=HR=\frac{\sqrt{3}+3}{2}$, so the area is $\frac{1}{2} * PH * QR = \frac{1}{2} * PH * (QH + HR) = \frac{1}{2} * \frac{\sqrt{3} + 3}{2} * \frac{2\sqrt{3}+4}{2} = \boxed{\frac{9+5\sqrt{3}}{4}}$. $9+5+3+4=021$. By Mathscienceclass

Solution 6 (Combination of 1 & 2)

We can observe that $RD=DF$ (because $\angle R$ & $\angle RFD$ are both $45^\circ$). Thus we know that $RD$ is equivalent to the height of the hexagon, which is $\sqrt3$. Now we look at triangle $\triangle AFP$ and apply the Law of Sines to it. $\frac{1}{\sin{75}}=\frac{AP}{\sin{45}}$. From here we can solve for $AP$ and get that $AP=\sqrt{3}-1$. Now we use the Sine formula for the area of a triangle with sides $RQ$, $PQ$, and $\angle {RQP}$ to get the answer. Setting $PQ=\sqrt{3}+1$ and $QR=\sqrt{3}+2$ we get the expression $\frac{(\sqrt{3}+1)(\sqrt{3}+2)(\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2})}{2}$ which is $\frac{9 + 5\sqrt{3}}{4}$. Thus our final answer is $9+5+3+4=\fbox{021}$. By AwesomeLife_Math

See also

2013 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 11
Followed by
Problem 13
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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