# Difference between revisions of "2013 USAMO Problems/Problem 5"

Given postive integers $m$ and $n$, prove that there is a positive integer $c$ such that the numbers $cm$ and $cn$ have the same number of occurrences of each non-zero digit when written in base ten. The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. ## Solution

This solution is adopted from the official solution. Both the problem and the solution were suggested by Richard Stong.

WLOG, suppose $m \geq n \geq 1$. By prime factorization of $n$, we can find a positive integer $c_1$ such that $c_1n=10^s n_1$ where $n_1$ is relatively prime to $10$. If a positive $k$ is larger than $s$, then $(10^k c_1 m - c_1 n)= 10^s t$, where $t=10^{k-s} c_1m-n_1>0$ is always relatively prime to $10$. Choose a $k$ large enough so that $t$ is larger than $c_1m$. We can find an integer $b\geq 1$ such that $10^b-1$ is divisible by $t$, and also larger than $10c_1m$. For example, let $b=\phi(t)$ and use Euler's theorem. Now, let $c_2=(10^b-1)/t$, and $c=c_1c_2$. We claim that $c$ is the desired number.

Indeed, since both $c_1m$ and $n_1$ are less than $t$, we see that the decimal expansion of both the fraction $(c_1m)/t = (cm)/(c_2t) = (cm)/(10^b-1)$ and $n_1/t=(c_2n_1)/(10^b-1)$ are repeated in $b$-digit. And we also see that $10^k (c_1m)/t = (t+c_1n)/t= 1+10^s (n_1/t)$, therefore the two repeated $b$-digit expansions are cyclic shift of one another. This proves that $cm$ and $c_2n_1$ have the same number of occurrences of non-zero digits. Furthermore, $cn = c_2c_1n=10^s c_2n_1$ also have the same number of occurrences of non-zero digits with $c_2n_1$.