Difference between revisions of "2014 USAMO Problems/Problem 1"

(Created page with "==Problem== Let <math>a,b,c,d</math> be real numbers such that <math>b-d \ge 5</math> and all zeros <math>x_1, x_2, x_3,</math> and <math>x_4</math> of the polynomial <math>P(x)=...")
 
(Solution)
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==Solution==
 
==Solution==
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The value in question is equal to
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<cmath> P(i) P(-i) = \left[ (b-d-1) + (a-c)i \right][ (b-d-1) - (a-c)i \right] = (b-d-1)^2 + (a-c)^2 \ge (5-1)^2 + 0^2 = 16 </cmath>
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where <math>i = \sqrt{-1}</math>. Equality holds if <math>x_1 = x_2 = x_3 = x_4 = 1</math>, so this bound is sharp.

Revision as of 06:17, 30 April 2014

Problem

Let $a,b,c,d$ be real numbers such that $b-d \ge 5$ and all zeros $x_1, x_2, x_3,$ and $x_4$ of the polynomial $P(x)=x^4+ax^3+bx^2+cx+d$ are real. Find the smallest value the product $(x_1^2+1)(x_2^2+1)(x_3^2+1)(x_4^2+1)$ can take.

Solution

The value in question is equal to

\[P(i) P(-i) = \left[ (b-d-1) + (a-c)i \right][ (b-d-1) - (a-c)i \right] = (b-d-1)^2 + (a-c)^2 \ge (5-1)^2 + 0^2 = 16\] (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Extra \right.)

where $i = \sqrt{-1}$. Equality holds if $x_1 = x_2 = x_3 = x_4 = 1$, so this bound is sharp.

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