# 2015 AIME II Problems/Problem 7

## Problem

Triangle $ABC$ has side lengths $AB = 12$, $BC = 25$, and $CA = 17$. Rectangle $PQRS$ has vertex $P$ on $\overline{AB}$, vertex $Q$ on $\overline{AC}$, and vertices $R$ and $S$ on $\overline{BC}$. In terms of the side length $PQ = w$, the area of $PQRS$ can be expressed as the quadratic polynomial

Area($PQRS$) = $\alpha w - \beta \cdot w^2$.

Then the coefficient $\beta = \frac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

## Solution 1

If $\omega = 25$, the area of rectangle $PQRS$ is $0$, so

$$\alpha\omega - \beta\omega^2 = 25\alpha - 625\beta = 0$$

and $\alpha = 25\beta$. If $\omega = \frac{25}{2}$, we can reflect $APQ$ over PQ, $PBS$ over $PS$, and $QCR$ over $QR$ to completely cover rectangle $PQRS$, so the area of $PQRS$ is half the area of the triangle. Using Heron's formula, since $s = \frac{12 + 17 + 25}{2} = 27$,

$$[ABC] = \sqrt{27 \cdot 15 \cdot 10 \cdot 2} = 90$$

so

$$45 = \alpha\omega - \beta\omega^2 = \frac{625}{2} \beta - \beta\frac{625}{4} = \beta\frac{625}{4}$$

and

$$\beta = \frac{180}{625} = \frac{36}{125}$$

so the answer is $m + n = 36 + 125 = \boxed{161}$.

## Solution 2

$[asy] unitsize(20); pair A,B,C,E,F,P,Q,R,S; A=(48/5,36/5); B=(0,0); C=(25,0); E=(48/5,0); F=(48/5,18/5); P=(24/5,18/5); Q=(173/10,18/5); S=(24/5,0); R=(173/10,0); draw(A--B--C--cycle); draw(P--Q); draw(Q--R); draw(R--S); draw(S--P); draw(A--E,dashed); label("A",A,N); label("B",B,SW); label("C",C,SE); label("E",E,SE); label("F",F,NE); label("P",P,NW); label("Q",Q,NE); label("R",R,SE); label("S",S,SW); draw(rightanglemark(B,E,A,12)); dot(E); dot(F); [/asy]$

Similar triangles can also solve the problem.

First, solve for the area of the triangle. $[ABC] = 90$. This can be done by Heron's Formula or placing an $8-15-17$ right triangle on $BC$ and solving. (The $8$ side would be collinear with line $AB$)

After finding the area, solve for the altitude to $BC$. Let $E$ be the intersection of the altitude from $A$ and side $BC$. Then $AE = \frac{36}{5}$. Solving for $BE$ using the Pythagorean Formula, we get $BE = \frac{48}{5}$. We then know that $CE = \frac{77}{5}$.

Now consider the rectangle $PQRS$. Since $SR$ is collinear with $BC$ and parallel to $PQ$, $PQ$ is parallel to $BC$ meaning $\Delta APQ$ is similar to $\Delta ABC$.

Let $F$ be the intersection between $AE$ and $PQ$. By the similar triangles, we know that $\frac{PF}{FQ}=\frac{BE}{EC} = \frac{48}{77}$. Since $PF+FQ=PQ=\omega$. We can solve for $PF$ and $FQ$ in terms of $\omega$. We get that $PF=\frac{48}{125} \omega$ and $FQ=\frac{77}{125} \omega$.

Let's work with $PF$. We know that $PQ$ is parallel to $BC$ so $\Delta APF$ is similar to $\Delta ABE$. We can set up the proportion:

$\frac{AF}{PF}=\frac{AE}{BE}=\frac{3}{4}$. Solving for $AF$, $AF = \frac{3}{4} PF = \frac{3}{4} \cdot \frac{48}{125} \omega = \frac{36}{125} \omega$.

We can solve for $PS$ then since we know that $PS=FE$ and $FE= AE - AF = \frac{36}{5} - \frac{36}{125} \omega$.

Therefore, $[PQRS] = PQ \cdot PS = \omega (\frac{36}{5} - \frac{36}{125} \omega) = \frac{36}{5}\omega - \frac{36}{125} \omega^2$.

This means that $\beta = \frac{36}{125} \Rightarrow (m,n) = (36,125) \Rightarrow m+n = \boxed{161}$.

## Solution 3

Heron's Formula gives $[ABC] = \sqrt{27 \cdot 15 \cdot 10 \cdot 2} = 90,$ so the altitude from $A$ to $BC$ has length $\dfrac{2[ABC]}{BC} = \dfrac{36}{5}.$

Now, draw a parallel to $AB$ from $Q$, intersecting $BC$ at $T$. Then $BT = w$ in parallelogram $QPBT$, and so $CT = 25 - w$. Clearly, $CQT$ and $CAB$ are similar triangles, and so their altitudes have lengths proportional to their corresponding base sides, and so $$\frac{QR}{\frac{36}{5}} = \frac{25 - w}{25}.$$ Solving gives $[PQRS] = \dfrac{36}{5} \cdot \dfrac{25 - w}{25} = \dfrac{36w}{5} - \dfrac{36w^2}{125}$, so the answer is $36 + 125 = 161$.

## Solution 4

Using the diagram from solution 2 above, label $AF$ to be $h$. Through Heron's formula, the area of $ABC$ turns out to be $90$, so using $AE$ as the height and $BC$ as the base yields $AE=\frac{36}{5}$. Now, through the use of similarity between $\triangle APQ$ and $\triangle ABC$, you find $\frac{w}{25}=\frac{h}{36/5}$. Thus, $h=\frac{36w}{125}$. To find the height of the rectangle, subtract $h$ from $\frac{36}{5}$ to get $\left(\frac{36}{5}-\frac{36w}{125}\right)$, and multiply this by the other given side $w$ to get $\frac{36w}{5}-\frac{36w^2}{125}$ for the area of the rectangle. Finally, $36+125=\boxed{161}$.