2015 IMO Problems

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Problem 1

We say that a finite set $\mathcal{S}$ in the plane is balanced if, for any two different points $A$, $B$ in $\mathcal{S}$, there is a point $C$ in $\mathcal{S}$ such that $AC=BC$. We say that $\mathcal{S}$ is centre-free if for any three points $A$, $B$, $C$ in $\mathcal{S}$, there is no point $P$ in $\mathcal{S}$ such that $PA=PB=PC$.

  1. Show that for all integers $n\geq 3$, there exists a balanced set consisting of $n$ points.
  2. Determine all integers $n\geq 3$ for which there exists a balanced centre-free set consisting of $n$ points.


Problem 2

Determine all triples of positive integers $(a,b,c)$ such that each of the numbers \[ab-c,\; bc-a,\; ca-b\] is a power of 2.

(A power of 2 is an integer of the form $2^n$ where $n$ is a non-negative integer ).


Problem 3

Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with $AB>AC$. Let $\Gamma$ be its circumcircle, $H$ its orthocenter, and $F$ the foot of the altitude from $A$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of $BC$. Let $Q$ be the point on $\Gamma$ such that $\angle HKQ=90^\circ$. Assume that the points $A$, $B$, $C$, $K$, and $Q$ are all different, and lie on $\Gamma$ in this order.

Prove that the circumcircles of triangles $KQH$ and $FKM$ are tangent to each other.


Problem 4

Triangle $ABC$ has circumcircle $\Omega$ and circumcenter $O$. A circle $\Gamma$ with center $A$ intersects the segment $BC$ at points $D$ and $E$, such that $B$, $D$, $E$, and $C$ are all different and lie on line $BC$ in this order. Let $F$ and $G$ be the points of intersection of $\Gamma$ and $\Omega$, such that $A$, $F$, $B$, $C$, and $G$ lie on $\Omega$ in this order. Let $K$ be the second point of intersection of the circumcircle of triangle $BDF$ and the segment $AB$. Let $L$ be the second point of intersection of the circumcircle of triangle $CGE$ and the segment $CA$.

Suppose that the lines $FK$ and $GL$ are different and intersect at the point $X$. Prove that $X$ lies on the line $AO$.


Problem 5

Let $\mathbb{R}$ be the set of real numbers. Determine all functions $f$:$\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ satisfying the equation

$f(x+f(x+y))+f(xy) = x+f(x+y)+yf(x)$

for all real numbers $x$ and $y$.


Problem 6

The sequence $a_1,a_2,\dots$ of integers satisfies the conditions:

(i) $1\le a_j\le2015$ for all $j\ge1$,
(ii) $k+a_k\neq \ell+a_\ell$ for all $1\le k<\ell$.

Prove that there exist two positive integers $b$ and $N$ for which\[\left\vert\sum_{j=m+1}^n(a_j-b)\right\vert\le1007^2\]for all integers $m$ and $n$ such that $n>m\ge N$.


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