2016 AIME II Problems/Problem 11

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For positive integers $N$ and $k$, define $N$ to be $k$-nice if there exists a positive integer $a$ such that $a^{k}$ has exactly $N$ positive divisors. Find the number of positive integers less than $1000$ that are neither $7$-nice nor $8$-nice.

Solution

We claim that an integer $N$ is only $k$-nice if and only if $N \equiv 1 \pmod k$. By the number of divisors formula, the number of divisors of $\prod_{i=1}^n p_i^{a_i}$ is $\prod_{i=1}^n (a_i+1)$. Since all the $a_i$s are divisible by $k$ in a perfect $k$ power, the only if part of the claim follows. To show that all numbers $N \equiv 1 \pmod k$ are $k$-nice, write $N=bk+1$. Note that $2^{kb}$ has the desired number of factors and is a perfect kth power. By PIE, the number of positive integers less than $1000$ that are either $1 \pmod 7$ or $1\pmod 8$ is $143+125-18=250$, so the desired answer is $999-250=\boxed{749}$.

Solution by Shaddoll

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