# Difference between revisions of "2016 AIME I Problems/Problem 15"

## Problem

Circles $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ intersect at points $X$ and $Y$. Line $\ell$ is tangent to $\omega_1$ and $\omega_2$ at $A$ and $B$, respectively, with line $AB$ closer to point $X$ than to $Y$. Circle $\omega$ passes through $A$ and $B$ intersecting $\omega_1$ again at $D \neq A$ and intersecting $\omega_2$ again at $C \neq B$. The three points $C$, $Y$, $D$ are collinear, $XC = 67$, $XY = 47$, and $XD = 37$. Find $AB^2$.

## Solution

### Solution 1

By the Radical Axis Theorem $AD, XY, BC$ concur at point $E$.

Let $AB$ and $EY$ intersect at $S$. Note that because $AXDY$ and $CYXB$ are cyclic, by Miquel's Theorem $AXBE$ is cyclic as well. Thus $$\angle AEX = \angle ABX = \angle XCB = \angle XYB$$and $$\angle XEB = \angle XAB = \angle XDA = \angle XYA.$$Thus $AY \parallel EB$ and $YB \parallel EA$, so $AEBY$ is a parallelogram. Hence $AS = SB$ and $SE = SY$. But notice that $DXE$ and $EXC$ are similar by $AA$ Similarity, so $XE^2 = XD \cdot XC = 37 \cdot 67$. But $$XE^2 - XY^2 = (XE + XY)(XE - XY) = EY \cdot 2XS = 2SY \cdot 2SX = 4SA^2 = AB^2.$$Hence $AB^2 = 37 \cdot 67 - 47^2 = 270.$

### Solution 2

First, we note that as $\triangle XDY$ and $\triangle XYC$ have bases along the same line, $\frac{[\triangle XDY]}{[\triangle XYC]}=\frac{DY}{YC}$. We can also find the ratio of their areas using the circumradius area formula. If $R_1$ is the radius of $\omega_1$ and if $R_2$ is the radius of $\omega_2$, then $$\frac{[\triangle XDY]}{[\triangle XYC]}=\frac{(37\cdot 47\cdot DY)/(4R_1)}{(47\cdot 67\cdot YC)/(4R_2)}=\frac{37\cdot DY\cdot R_2}{67\cdot YC\cdot R_1}.$$ Since we showed this to be $\frac{DY}{YC}$, we see that $\frac{R_2}{R_1}=\frac{67}{37}$.

We extend $AD$ and $BC$ to meet at point $P$, and we extend $AB$ and $CD$ to meet at point $Q$ as shown below. $[asy] size(200); import olympiad; real R1=45,R2=67*R1/37; real m1=sqrt(R1^2-23.5^2); real m2=sqrt(R2^2-23.5^2); pair o1=(0,0),o2=(m1+m2,0),x=(m1,23.5),y=(m1,-23.5); draw(circle(o1,R1)); draw(circle(o2,R2)); pair q=(-R1/(R2-R1)*o2.x,0); pair a=tangent(q,o1,R1,2); pair b=tangent(q,o2,R2,2); pair d=intersectionpoints(circle(o1,R1),q--y+15*(y-q))[0]; pair c=intersectionpoints(circle(o2,R2),q--y+15*(y-q))[1]; pair p=extension(a,d,b,c); dot(q^^a^^b^^x^^y^^c^^d^^p); draw(q--b^^q--c); draw(p--d^^p--c^^x--y); draw(a--y^^b--y); draw(d--x--c); label("A",a,NW,fontsize(8)); label("B",b,NE,fontsize(8)); label("C",c,SE,fontsize(8)); label("D",d,SW,fontsize(8)); label("X",x,2*WNW,fontsize(8)); label("Y",y,3*S,fontsize(8)); label("P",p,N,fontsize(8)); label("Q",q,W,fontsize(8)); [/asy]$ As $ABCD$ is cyclic, we know that $\angle BCD=180-\angle DAB=\angle BAP$. But then as $AB$ is tangent to $\omega_2$ at $B$, we see that $\angle BCD=\angle ABY$. Therefore, $\angle ABY=\angle BAP$, and $BY\parallel PD$. A similar argument shows $AY\parallel PC$. These parallel lines show $\triangle PDC\sim\triangle ADY\sim\triangle BYC$. Also, we showed that $\frac{R_2}{R_1}=\frac{67}{37}$, so the ratio of similarity between $\triangle ADY$ and $\triangle BYC$ is $\frac{37}{67}$, or rather $$\frac{AD}{BY}=\frac{DY}{YC}=\frac{YA}{CB}=\frac{37}{67}.$$ We can now use the parallel lines to find more similar triangles. As $\triangle AQD\sim \triangle BQY$, we know that $$\frac{QA}{QB}=\frac{QD}{QY}=\frac{AD}{BY}=\frac{37}{67}.$$ Setting $QA=37x$, we see that $QB=67x$, hence $AB=30x$, and the problem simplifies to finding $30^2x^2$. Setting $QD=37^2y$, we also see that $QY=37\cdot 67y$, hence $DY=37\cdot 30y$. Also, as $\triangle AQY\sim \triangle BQC$, we find that $$\frac{QY}{QC}=\frac{YA}{CB}=\frac{37}{67}.$$ As $QY=37\cdot 67y$, we see that $QC=67^2y$, hence $YC=67\cdot30y$.

Applying Power of a Point to point $Q$ with respect to $\omega_2$, we find $$67^2x^2=37\cdot 67^3 y^2,$$ or $x^2=37\cdot 67 y^2$. We wish to find $AB^2=30^2x^2=30^2\cdot 37\cdot 67y^2$.

Applying Stewart's Theorem to $\triangle XDC$, we find $$37^2\cdot (67\cdot 30y)+67^2\cdot(37\cdot 30y)=(67\cdot 30y)\cdot (37\cdot 30y)\cdot (104\cdot 30y)+47^2\cdot (104\cdot 30y).$$ We can cancel $30\cdot 104\cdot y$ from both sides, finding $37\cdot 67=30^2\cdot 67\cdot 37y^2+47^2$. Therefore, $$AB^2=30^2\cdot 37\cdot 67y^2=37\cdot 67-47^2=\boxed{270}.$$