# 2016 AIME I Problems/Problem 9

## Problem

Triangle $ABC$ has $AB=40,AC=31,$ and $\sin{A}=\frac{1}{5}$. This triangle is inscribed in rectangle $AQRS$ with $B$ on $\overline{QR}$ and $C$ on $\overline{RS}$. Find the maximum possible area of $AQRS$.

## Solution

### Solution 1

Note that if angle $BAC$ is obtuse, it would be impossible for the triangle to inscribed in a rectangle. This can easily be shown by drawing triangle ABC, where $A$ is obtuse. Therefore, angle A is acute. Let angle $CAS=n$ and angle $BAQ=m$. Then, $\overline{AS}=31\cos(n)$ and $\overline{AQ}=40\cos(m)$. Then the area of rectangle $AQRS$ is $1240\cos(m)\cos(n)$. By product-to-sum, $\cos(m)\cos(n)=\frac{1}{2}(\cos(m+n)+\cos(m-n))$. Since $\cos(m+n)=\sin(90-m-n)=\sin(BAC)=\frac{1}{5}$. The maximum possible value of $\cos(m-n)$ is 1, which occurs when $m=n$. Thus the maximum possible value of $\cos(m)\cos(n)$ is $\frac{1}{2}(\frac{1}{5}+1)=\frac{3}{5}$ so the maximum possible area of $AQRS$ is $1240\times{\frac{3}{5}}=\fbox{744}$. -AkashD

### Solution 2

As above, we note that angle $A$ must be acute. Therefore, let $A$ be the origin, and suppose that $Q$ is on the positive $x$ axis and $S$ is on the positive $y$ axis. We approach this using complex numbers. Let $w=\text{cis} A$, and let $z$ be a complex number with $|z|=1$, $\text{Arg}(z)\ge 0^\circ$ and $\text{Arg}(zw)\le90^\circ$. Then we represent $B$ by $40z$ and $C$ by $31zw$. The coordinates of $Q$ and $S$ depend on the real part of $40z$ and the imaginary part of $31zw$. Thus $$[AQRS]=\Re(40z)\cdot \Im(31zw)=1240\left(\frac{z+\overline{z}}{2}\right)\left(\frac{zw-\overline{zw}}{2i}\right).$$ We can expand this, using the fact that $z\overline{z}=|z|^2$, finding $$[AQRS]=620\left(\frac{z^2w-\overline{z^2w}+w-\overline{w}}{2i}\right)=620(\Im(z^2w)+\Im(w)).$$ Now as $w=\text{cis}A$, we know that $\Im(w)=\frac15$. Also, $|z^2w|=1$, so the maximum possible imaginary part of $z^2w$ is $1$. This is clearly achievable under our conditions on $z$. Therefore, the maximum possible area of $AQRS$ is $620(1+\tfrac15)=\boxed{744}$.

# See Also

 2016 AIME I (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) Preceded byProblem 8 Followed byProblem 10 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 All AIME Problems and Solutions

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