2016 AMC 8 Problems/Problem 5

Revision as of 22:40, 1 November 2020 by Ab2024 (talk | contribs) (Solution 2)

The number $N$ is a two-digit number.

• When $N$ is divided by $9$, the remainder is $1$.

• When $N$ is divided by $10$, the remainder is $3$.

What is the remainder when $N$ is divided by $11$?


$\textbf{(A) }0\qquad\textbf{(B) }2\qquad\textbf{(C) }4\qquad\textbf{(D) }5\qquad \textbf{(E) }7$

Video Solution

https://youtu.be/7an5wU9Q5hk?t=574

Solution

From the second bullet point, we know that the second digit must be $3$. Because there is a remainder of $1$ when it is divided by $9$, the multiple of $9$ must end in a $2$ in order for it to have the desired remainder$\pmod {10}.$ We now look for this one:

$9(1)=9\\ 9(2)=18\\ 9(3)=27\\ 9(4)=36\\ 9(5)=45\\ 9(6)=54\\ 9(7)=63\\ 9(8)=72$

The number $72+1=73$ satisfies both conditions. We subtract the biggest multiple of $11$ less than $73$ to get the remainder. Thus, $73-11(6)=73-66=\boxed{\textbf{(E) }7}$.


Solution 2 ~ More efficient for proofs

This two digit number must take the form of $10x+y,$ where $x$ and $y$ are integers $0$ to $9.$ However, if x is an integer, we must have $y=3.$ So, the number's new form is $10x+3.$ This needs to have a remainder of $1$ when divided by $9.$ Because of the $9$ divisibility rule, we have \[10x+3 \equiv 1 \pmod 9.\] We subtract the three, getting \[10x \equiv -2 \pmod 9.\] which simplifies to \[10x \equiv 7 \pmod 9.\] However, $9x \equiv 0 \pmod 9,$ so \[10x - 9x \equiv 7 - 0 \pmod 9\] and \[x \equiv 7 \pmod 9.\]

Let the quotient of $9$ in our modular equation be $c,$ and let our desired number be $z,$ so $x=9c+7$ and $z = 10x+3.$ We substitute these values into $z = 10x+3,$ and get \[z = 10(9c+7) + 3\] so \[z = 90c+73.\] As a result, $z \equiv 73 \pmod {90}.$

  • Alternatively, we could have also used a system of modular equations to immediately receive $z \equiv 73 \pmod {90}.$

To prove generalization vigorously, we can let $a$ be the remainder when $z$ is divided by $11.$ Setting up a modular equation, we have \[90c + 73 \equiv a \pmod {11}.\] Simplifying, \[90c+7 \equiv a \pmod {11}\] If $c = 1,$ then we don't have a 2 digit number! Thus, $c=0$ and $a=\boxed { \textbf{(E) }7}$

Video Solution

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LqnQQcUVJmA (has questions 1-5)


2016 AMC 8 (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 4
Followed by
Problem 6
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All AJHSME/AMC 8 Problems and Solutions

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