# 2016 USAJMO Problems

## Day 1

### Problem 1

The isosceles triangle $\triangle ABC$, with $AB=AC$, is inscribed in the circle $\omega$. Let $P$ be a variable point on the arc $\stackrel{\frown}{BC}$ that does not contain $A$, and let $I_B$ and $I_C$ denote the incenters of triangles $\triangle ABP$ and $\triangle ACP$, respectively.

Prove that as $P$ varies, the circumcircle of triangle $\triangle PI_BI_C$ passes through a fixed point.

### Problem 2

Prove that there exists a positive integer $n < 10^6$ such that $5^n$ has six consecutive zeros in its decimal representation.

### Problem 3

Let $X_1, X_2, \ldots, X_{100}$ be a sequence of mutually distinct nonempty subsets of a set $S$. Any two sets $X_i$ and $X_{i+1}$ are disjoint and their union is not the whole set $S$, that is, $X_i\cap X_{i+1}=\emptyset$ and $X_i\cup X_{i+1}\neq S$, for all $i\in\{1, \ldots, 99\}$. Find the smallest possible number of elements in $S$.

## Day 2

### Problem 4

Find, with proof, the least integer $N$ such that if any $2016$ elements are removed from the set ${1, 2,...,N}$, one can still find $2016$ distinct numbers among the remaining elements with sum $N$.

### Problem 5

Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute triangle, with $O$ as its circumcenter. Point $H$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $A$ to line $\overleftrightarrow{BC}$, and points $P$ and $Q$ are the feet of the perpendiculars from $H$ to the lines $\overleftrightarrow{AB}$ and $\overleftrightarrow{AC}$, respectively.

Given that $$AH^2=2\cdot AO^2,$$prove that the points $O,P,$ and $Q$ are collinear.

### Problem 6

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that for all real numbers $x$ and $y$, $$(f(x)+xy)\cdot f(x-3y)+(f(y)+xy)\cdot f(3x-y)=(f(x+y))^2.$$

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. 2016 USAJMO (Problems • Resources) Preceded by2015 USAJMO Followed by2017 USAJMO 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 All USAJMO Problems and Solutions
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