2017 AIME II Problems/Problem 8
Find the number of positive integers less than such that is an integer.
Solution 1 (Not Rigorous)
Writing the last two terms with a common denominator, we have By inspection. this yields that . Therefore, we get the final answer of .
Taking out the part of the expression and writing the remaining terms under a common denominator, we get . Therefore the expression must equal for some positive integer . Taking both sides mod , the result is . Therefore must be even. If is even, that means can be written in the form where is a positive integer. Replacing with in the expression, is divisible by because each coefficient is divisible by . Therefore, if is even, is divisible by .
Taking the equation mod , the result is . Therefore must be a multiple of . If is a multiple of three, that means can be written in the form where is a positive integer. Replacing with in the expression, is divisible by because each coefficient is divisible by . Therefore, if is a multiple of , is divisibly by .
Taking the equation mod , the result is . The only values of that satisfy the equation are and . Therefore if is or mod , will be a multiple of .
The only way to get the expression to be divisible by is to have , , and . By the Chinese Remainder Theorem or simple guessing and checking, we see . Because no numbers between and are equivalent to or mod , the answer is .
Note that will have a denominator that divides . Therefore, for the expression to be an integer, must have a denominator that divides . Thus, , and . Let . Substituting gives . Note that the first terms are integers, so it suffices for to be an integer. This simplifies to . It follows that . Therefore, is either or modulo . However, we seek the number of , and . By CRT, is either or modulo , and the answer is .
|2017 AIME II (Problems • Answer Key • Resources)|
|1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15|
|All AIME Problems and Solutions|