Difference between revisions of "2017 AIME I Problems/Problem 9"

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(Solution 2)
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<cmath>0 \equiv \frac{n(n+1)}{2} - \frac{10*9}{2} \pmod {99} </cmath>
 
<cmath>0 \equiv \frac{n(n+1)}{2} - \frac{10*9}{2} \pmod {99} </cmath>
 
<cmath>0 \equiv n(n+1) - 90 \pmod {99} </cmath>
 
<cmath>0 \equiv n(n+1) - 90 \pmod {99} </cmath>
<cmath>0 \equiv n^2+n+9 \pmod {99} </cmath>
 
 
<cmath>0 \equiv 4n^2+4n+36 \pmod {99} </cmath>
 
<cmath>0 \equiv 4n^2+4n+36 \pmod {99} </cmath>
 
<cmath>0 \equiv (2n+1)^2+35 \pmod {99} </cmath>
 
<cmath>0 \equiv (2n+1)^2+35 \pmod {99} </cmath>
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The smallest positive integer solution greater than <math>10</math> is <math>n=\boxed{045}</math>.
 
The smallest positive integer solution greater than <math>10</math> is <math>n=\boxed{045}</math>.
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==Solution 3==
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<math>a_n=a_{n-1} + n \pmod{99}</math>.
 +
Using the steps of the previous solution we get up to
 +
<cmath>0 \equiv n^2+n+9 \pmod {99} </cmath>
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<cmath>n=9y \implies 9y^2+y+1 \equiv 0 \pmod{11}</cmath>
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Since this is the AIME and <cmath>y>1</cmath> you get <cmath>2 \leq n \leq 111</cmath>. You can use trial and error to get <math>y=5 \implies \boxed{45}</math> but if you want a smarter way see below:
 +
Factor to get <cmath>y(9y+1) \equiv 10 \pmod{11}</cmath> so <math>y \equiv \{1, 2, 5, 10\} \pmod{11}</math> and then testing all of them only <math>y \equiv 5 \pmod{11}</math> works so <math>y=5 \implies \boxed{45}</math>.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
{{AIME box|year=2017|n=I|num-b=8|num-a=10}}
 
{{AIME box|year=2017|n=I|num-b=8|num-a=10}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}

Revision as of 16:29, 9 March 2017

Problem 9

Let $a_{10} = 10$, and for each integer $n >10$ let $a_n = 100a_{n - 1} + n$. Find the least $n > 10$ such that $a_n$ is a multiple of $99$.

Solution 1

Writing out the recursive statement for $a_n, a_{n-1}, \dots, a_{10}$ and summing them gives \[a_n+\dots+a_{10}=100(a_{n-1}+\dots+a_{10})+n+\dots+10\] Which simplifies to \[a_n=99(a_{n-1}+\dots+a_{10})+\frac{1}{2}(n+10)(n-9)\] Therefore, $a_n$ is divisible by 99 if and only if $\frac{1}{2}(n+10)(n-9)$ is divisible by 99, so $(n+10)(n-9)$ needs to be divisible by 9 and 11. Assume that $n+10$ is a multiple of 11. Writing out a few terms, $n=12, 23, 34, 45$, we see that $n=45$ is the smallest $n$ that works in this case. Next, assume that $n-9$ is a multiple of 11. Writing out a few terms, $n=20, 31, 42, 53$, we see that $n=53$ is the smallest $n$ that works in this case. The smallest $n$ is $\boxed{045}$.

Solution 2

\[a_n \equiv a_{n-1} + n \pmod {99}\] By looking at the first few terms, we can see that \[a_n \equiv 10+11+12+ \dots + n \pmod {99}\] This implies \[a_n \equiv \frac{n(n+1)}{2} - \frac{10*9}{2} \pmod {99}\] Since $a_n \equiv 0 \pmod {99}$, we can rewrite the equivalence, and simplify \[0 \equiv \frac{n(n+1)}{2} - \frac{10*9}{2} \pmod {99}\] \[0 \equiv n(n+1) - 90 \pmod {99}\] \[0 \equiv 4n^2+4n+36 \pmod {99}\] \[0 \equiv (2n+1)^2+35 \pmod {99}\] \[64 \equiv (2n+1)^2 \pmod {99}\] The only squares that are congruent to $64 \pmod {99}$ are $(\pm 8)^2$ and $(\pm 19)^2$, so \[2n+1 \equiv -8, 8, 19, \text{or } {-19} \pmod {99}\] $2n+1 \equiv -8 \pmod {99}$ yields $n=45$ as the smallest integer solution.

$2n+1 \equiv 8 \pmod {99}$ yields $n=53$ as the smallest integer solution.

$2n+1 \equiv -19 \pmod {99}$ yields $n=89$ as the smallest integer solution.

$2n+1 \equiv 19 \pmod {99}$ yields $n=9$ as the smallest integer solution. However, $n$ must be greater than $10$.

The smallest positive integer solution greater than $10$ is $n=\boxed{045}$.

Solution 3

$a_n=a_{n-1} + n \pmod{99}$. Using the steps of the previous solution we get up to \[0 \equiv n^2+n+9 \pmod {99}\] \[n=9y \implies 9y^2+y+1 \equiv 0 \pmod{11}\] Since this is the AIME and \[y>1\] you get \[2 \leq n \leq 111\]. You can use trial and error to get $y=5 \implies \boxed{45}$ but if you want a smarter way see below: Factor to get \[y(9y+1) \equiv 10 \pmod{11}\] so $y \equiv \{1, 2, 5, 10\} \pmod{11}$ and then testing all of them only $y \equiv 5 \pmod{11}$ works so $y=5 \implies \boxed{45}$.

See also

2017 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 8
Followed by
Problem 10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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