Difference between revisions of "2017 AMC 10B Problems/Problem 14"

m (Solution 2)
m
Line 1: Line 1:
 
==Problem==
 
==Problem==
An integer <math>N</math> is selected at random in the range <math>1\leq N \leq 2020</math> . What is the probablilty that the remainder when <math>N^{16}</math> is divided by <math>5</math> is <math>1</math>?
+
An integer <math>N</math> is selected at random in the range <math>1\leq N \leq 2020</math> . What is the probability that the remainder when <math>N^{16}</math> is divided by <math>5</math> is <math>1</math>?
==Solution==
+
 
 +
==Solution 1==
 
By Fermat's Little Theorem, <math>N^{16} = (N^4)^4 \equiv 1 \text{ (mod 5)}</math> when N is relatively prime to 5. However, this happens with probability <math>\boxed{\textbf{(D) } \frac 45}</math>.
 
By Fermat's Little Theorem, <math>N^{16} = (N^4)^4 \equiv 1 \text{ (mod 5)}</math> when N is relatively prime to 5. However, this happens with probability <math>\boxed{\textbf{(D) } \frac 45}</math>.
  
 
==Solution 2==
 
==Solution 2==
 
Note that the patterns for the units digits repeat, so in a sense we only need to find the patterns for the digits <math>0-9</math> .
 
Note that the patterns for the units digits repeat, so in a sense we only need to find the patterns for the digits <math>0-9</math> .
The pattern for <math>0</math> is <math>0</math>, no matter what power, so <math>0</math> doesn't work. Likewise, the pattern for <math>5</math> is always <math>5</math>. Doing the same for the rest of the digits, we find that the units digits of <math>1^{16}</math>, <math>2^{16}</math> ,<math>3^{16}</math>, <math>4^{16}</math> ,<math>6^{16}</math>, <math>7^{16}</math> ,<math>8^{16}</math> and <math>9^{16}</math> all have the remainder of <math>1</math> when divided by <math>5</math> <math>\boxed{\textbf{(D) } \frac 45}</math>.
+
The pattern for <math>0</math> is <math>0</math>, no matter what power, so <math>0</math> doesn't work. Likewise, the pattern for <math>5</math> is always <math>5</math>. Doing the same for the rest of the digits, we find that the units digits of <math>1^{16}</math>, <math>2^{16}</math> ,<math>3^{16}</math>, <math>4^{16}</math> ,<math>6^{16}</math>, <math>7^{16}</math> ,<math>8^{16}</math> and <math>9^{16}</math> all have the remainder of <math>1</math> when divided by <math>5</math>, so <math>\boxed{\textbf{(D) } \frac 45}</math>.
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
{{AMC10 box|year=2017|ab=B|num-b=13|num-a=15}}
 
{{AMC10 box|year=2017|ab=B|num-b=13|num-a=15}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}

Revision as of 14:40, 16 February 2017

Problem

An integer $N$ is selected at random in the range $1\leq N \leq 2020$ . What is the probability that the remainder when $N^{16}$ is divided by $5$ is $1$?

Solution 1

By Fermat's Little Theorem, $N^{16} = (N^4)^4 \equiv 1 \text{ (mod 5)}$ when N is relatively prime to 5. However, this happens with probability $\boxed{\textbf{(D) } \frac 45}$.

Solution 2

Note that the patterns for the units digits repeat, so in a sense we only need to find the patterns for the digits $0-9$ . The pattern for $0$ is $0$, no matter what power, so $0$ doesn't work. Likewise, the pattern for $5$ is always $5$. Doing the same for the rest of the digits, we find that the units digits of $1^{16}$, $2^{16}$ ,$3^{16}$, $4^{16}$ ,$6^{16}$, $7^{16}$ ,$8^{16}$ and $9^{16}$ all have the remainder of $1$ when divided by $5$, so $\boxed{\textbf{(D) } \frac 45}$.

See Also

2017 AMC 10B (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 13
Followed by
Problem 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. AMC logo.png

Invalid username
Login to AoPS