Difference between revisions of "2017 AMC 10B Problems/Problem 23"

m (Solution 3)
(Solution 2)
Line 12: Line 12:
 
==Alternative Ending to Solution 1==
 
==Alternative Ending to Solution 1==
 
Once we find our 2 modular congruences, we can narrow our options down to <math>{C}</math> and <math>{D}</math> because the remainder when <math>N</math> is divided by <math>45</math> should be a multiple of 9 by our modular congruence that states <math>N</math> has a remainder of <math>0</math> when divided by <math>9</math>. Also, our other modular congruence states that the remainder when divided by <math>45</math> should have a remainder of <math>4</math> when divided by <math>5</math>. Out of options <math>C</math> and <math>D</math>, only <math>\boxed{\textbf{(C) } 9}</math> satisfies that the remainder when <math>N</math> is divided by 45 <math>\equiv 4 \text{ (mod 5)}</math>.
 
Once we find our 2 modular congruences, we can narrow our options down to <math>{C}</math> and <math>{D}</math> because the remainder when <math>N</math> is divided by <math>45</math> should be a multiple of 9 by our modular congruence that states <math>N</math> has a remainder of <math>0</math> when divided by <math>9</math>. Also, our other modular congruence states that the remainder when divided by <math>45</math> should have a remainder of <math>4</math> when divided by <math>5</math>. Out of options <math>C</math> and <math>D</math>, only <math>\boxed{\textbf{(C) } 9}</math> satisfies that the remainder when <math>N</math> is divided by 45 <math>\equiv 4 \text{ (mod 5)}</math>.
 
==Solution 2==
 
In the same way, you can get <math>N=4 \pmod{5}</math> and <math>N=0 \pmod{9}</math>. By the Chinese remainder Theorem, the answer comes out to be <math>\boxed{C}</math>
 
  
 
==Solution 3==
 
==Solution 3==

Revision as of 14:09, 27 September 2020

Problem 23

Let $N=123456789101112\dots4344$ be the $79$-digit number that is formed by writing the integers from $1$ to $44$ in order, one after the other. What is the remainder when $N$ is divided by $45$?

$\textbf{(A)}\ 1\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 4\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 9\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 18\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 44$


Solution 1

We only need to find the remainders of N when divided by 5 and 9 to determine the answer. By inspection, $N \equiv 4 \text{ (mod 5)}$. The remainder when $N$ is divided by $9$ is $1+2+3+4+ \cdots +1+0+1+1 +1+2 +\cdots + 4+3+4+4$, but since $10 \equiv 1 \text{ (mod 9)}$, we can also write this as $1+2+3 +\cdots +10+11+12+ \cdots 43 + 44 = \frac{44 \cdot 45}2 = 22 \cdot 45$, which has a remainder of 0 mod 9. Solving these modular congruence using CRT(Chinese Remainder Theorem) we get the remainder to be $9 \pmod{45}$. Therefore, the answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(C) } 9}$.

Alternative Ending to Solution 1

Once we find our 2 modular congruences, we can narrow our options down to ${C}$ and ${D}$ because the remainder when $N$ is divided by $45$ should be a multiple of 9 by our modular congruence that states $N$ has a remainder of $0$ when divided by $9$. Also, our other modular congruence states that the remainder when divided by $45$ should have a remainder of $4$ when divided by $5$. Out of options $C$ and $D$, only $\boxed{\textbf{(C) } 9}$ satisfies that the remainder when $N$ is divided by 45 $\equiv 4 \text{ (mod 5)}$.

Solution 3

Realize that $10 \equiv 10 \cdot 10 \equiv 10^{k} \pmod{45}$ for all positive integers $k$.

Apply this on the expanded form of $N$: \[N = 1(10)^{78} + 2(10)^{77} + \cdots + 9(10)^{70} + 10(10)^{68} + 11(10)^{66} + \cdots + 43(10)^{2} + 44 \equiv\] \[10(1 + 2 + \cdots + 43) + 44 \equiv 10 \left (\frac{43 \cdot 44}2 \right ) + 44 \equiv\] \[10 \left (\frac{-2 \cdot -1}2 \right ) - 1 \equiv \boxed{\textbf{(C) } 9} \pmod{45}\]

See Also

2017 AMC 10B (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 22
Followed by
Problem 24
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. AMC logo.png

Invalid username
Login to AoPS