2017 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 16
The number has over positive integer divisors. One of them is chosen at random. What is the probability that it is odd?
If a factor of is odd, that means it contains no factors of . We can find the number of factors of two in by counting the number multiples of , , , and that are less than or equal to (Legendre's Formula). After some quick counting we find that this number is . If the prime factorization of has factors of , there are choices for each divisor for how many factors of should be included ( to inclusive). The probability that a randomly chosen factor is odd is the same as if the number of factors of is which is .
Solution by: vedadehhc
We can write as its prime factorization:
Each exponent of these prime numbers are one less than the number of factors at play here. This makes sense; is going to have factors: , and the other exponents will behave identically.
In other words, has factors.
We are looking for the probability that a randomly chosen factor of will be odd--numbers that do not contain multiples of as factors.
From our earlier observation, the only factors of that are even are ones with at least one multiplier of , so our probability of finding an odd factor becomes the following:
Solution submitted by David Kim
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