Difference between revisions of "2018 AIME I Problems/Problem 13"

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==Solution==
 
==Solution==
 
First note that <cmath>\angle I_1AI_2 = \angle I_1AX + \angle XAI_2 = \frac{\angle BAX}2 + \frac{\angle CAX}2 = \frac{\angle A}2</cmath> is a constant not depending on <math>X</math>, so by <math>[AI_1I_2] = \tfrac12(AI_1)(AI_2)\sin\angle I_1AI_2</math> it suffices to minimize <math>(AI_1)(AI_2)</math>.  Let <math>a = BC</math>, <math>b = AC</math>, <math>c = AB</math>, and <math>\alpha = \angle AXB</math>.  Remark that <cmath>\angle AI_1B = 180^\circ - (\angle I_1AB + \angle I_1BA) = 180^\circ - \tfrac12(180^\circ - \alpha) = 90^\circ + \tfrac\alpha 2.</cmath> Applying the Law of Sines to <math>\triangle ABI_1</math> gives <cmath>\frac{AI_1}{AB} = \frac{\sin\angle ABI_1}{\sin\angle AI_1B}\qquad\Rightarrow\qquad AI_1 = \frac{c\sin\frac B2}{\cos\frac\alpha 2}.</cmath> Analogously one can derive <math>AI_2 = \tfrac{b\sin\frac C2}{\sin\frac\alpha 2}</math>, and so <cmath>[AI_1I_2] = \frac{bc\sin\frac A2 \sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2}{2\cos\frac\alpha 2\sin\frac\alpha 2} = \frac{bc\sin\frac A2 \sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2}{\sin\alpha}\geq bc\sin\frac A2 \sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2,</cmath> with equality when <math>\alpha = 90^\circ</math>, that is, when <math>X</math> is the foot of the perpendicular from <math>A</math> to <math>\overline{BC}</math>.  In this case the desired area is <math>bc\sin\tfrac A2\sin\tfrac B2\sin\tfrac C2</math>.  To make this feasible to compute, note that <cmath>\sin\frac A2=\sqrt{\frac{1+\cos A}2}=\sqrt{\frac{1+\frac{b^2+c^2-a^2}{2bc}}2} = \sqrt{\dfrac{(a-b+c)(a+b-c)}{4bc}}.</cmath> Applying similar logic to <math>\sin \tfrac B2</math> and <math>\sin\tfrac C2</math> and simplifying yields a final answer of <cmath>\begin{align*}bc\sin\frac A2\sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2&=bc\cdot\dfrac{(a-b+c)(b-c+a)(c-a+b)}{8abc}\\&=\dfrac{(30-32+34)(32-34+30)(34-30+32)}{8\cdot 32}=\boxed{126}.\end{align*}</cmath>
 
First note that <cmath>\angle I_1AI_2 = \angle I_1AX + \angle XAI_2 = \frac{\angle BAX}2 + \frac{\angle CAX}2 = \frac{\angle A}2</cmath> is a constant not depending on <math>X</math>, so by <math>[AI_1I_2] = \tfrac12(AI_1)(AI_2)\sin\angle I_1AI_2</math> it suffices to minimize <math>(AI_1)(AI_2)</math>.  Let <math>a = BC</math>, <math>b = AC</math>, <math>c = AB</math>, and <math>\alpha = \angle AXB</math>.  Remark that <cmath>\angle AI_1B = 180^\circ - (\angle I_1AB + \angle I_1BA) = 180^\circ - \tfrac12(180^\circ - \alpha) = 90^\circ + \tfrac\alpha 2.</cmath> Applying the Law of Sines to <math>\triangle ABI_1</math> gives <cmath>\frac{AI_1}{AB} = \frac{\sin\angle ABI_1}{\sin\angle AI_1B}\qquad\Rightarrow\qquad AI_1 = \frac{c\sin\frac B2}{\cos\frac\alpha 2}.</cmath> Analogously one can derive <math>AI_2 = \tfrac{b\sin\frac C2}{\sin\frac\alpha 2}</math>, and so <cmath>[AI_1I_2] = \frac{bc\sin\frac A2 \sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2}{2\cos\frac\alpha 2\sin\frac\alpha 2} = \frac{bc\sin\frac A2 \sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2}{\sin\alpha}\geq bc\sin\frac A2 \sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2,</cmath> with equality when <math>\alpha = 90^\circ</math>, that is, when <math>X</math> is the foot of the perpendicular from <math>A</math> to <math>\overline{BC}</math>.  In this case the desired area is <math>bc\sin\tfrac A2\sin\tfrac B2\sin\tfrac C2</math>.  To make this feasible to compute, note that <cmath>\sin\frac A2=\sqrt{\frac{1+\cos A}2}=\sqrt{\frac{1+\frac{b^2+c^2-a^2}{2bc}}2} = \sqrt{\dfrac{(a-b+c)(a+b-c)}{4bc}}.</cmath> Applying similar logic to <math>\sin \tfrac B2</math> and <math>\sin\tfrac C2</math> and simplifying yields a final answer of <cmath>\begin{align*}bc\sin\frac A2\sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2&=bc\cdot\dfrac{(a-b+c)(b-c+a)(c-a+b)}{8abc}\\&=\dfrac{(30-32+34)(32-34+30)(34-30+32)}{8\cdot 32}=\boxed{126}.\end{align*}</cmath>
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==See Also==
 +
{{AIME box|year=2018|n=I|num-b=12|num-a=14}}
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{{MAA Notice}}

Revision as of 22:57, 8 March 2018

Problem

Let $\triangle ABC$ have side lengths $AB=30$, $BC=32$, and $AC=34$. Point $X$ lies in the interior of $\overline{BC}$, and points $I_1$ and $I_2$ are the incenters of $\triangle ABX$ and $\triangle ACX$, respectively. Find the minimum possible area of $\triangle AI_1I_2$ as $X$ varies along $\overline{BC}$.

Solution

First note that \[\angle I_1AI_2 = \angle I_1AX + \angle XAI_2 = \frac{\angle BAX}2 + \frac{\angle CAX}2 = \frac{\angle A}2\] is a constant not depending on $X$, so by $[AI_1I_2] = \tfrac12(AI_1)(AI_2)\sin\angle I_1AI_2$ it suffices to minimize $(AI_1)(AI_2)$. Let $a = BC$, $b = AC$, $c = AB$, and $\alpha = \angle AXB$. Remark that \[\angle AI_1B = 180^\circ - (\angle I_1AB + \angle I_1BA) = 180^\circ - \tfrac12(180^\circ - \alpha) = 90^\circ + \tfrac\alpha 2.\] Applying the Law of Sines to $\triangle ABI_1$ gives \[\frac{AI_1}{AB} = \frac{\sin\angle ABI_1}{\sin\angle AI_1B}\qquad\Rightarrow\qquad AI_1 = \frac{c\sin\frac B2}{\cos\frac\alpha 2}.\] Analogously one can derive $AI_2 = \tfrac{b\sin\frac C2}{\sin\frac\alpha 2}$, and so \[[AI_1I_2] = \frac{bc\sin\frac A2 \sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2}{2\cos\frac\alpha 2\sin\frac\alpha 2} = \frac{bc\sin\frac A2 \sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2}{\sin\alpha}\geq bc\sin\frac A2 \sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2,\] with equality when $\alpha = 90^\circ$, that is, when $X$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $A$ to $\overline{BC}$. In this case the desired area is $bc\sin\tfrac A2\sin\tfrac B2\sin\tfrac C2$. To make this feasible to compute, note that \[\sin\frac A2=\sqrt{\frac{1+\cos A}2}=\sqrt{\frac{1+\frac{b^2+c^2-a^2}{2bc}}2} = \sqrt{\dfrac{(a-b+c)(a+b-c)}{4bc}}.\] Applying similar logic to $\sin \tfrac B2$ and $\sin\tfrac C2$ and simplifying yields a final answer of \begin{align*}bc\sin\frac A2\sin\frac B2\sin\frac C2&=bc\cdot\dfrac{(a-b+c)(b-c+a)(c-a+b)}{8abc}\\&=\dfrac{(30-32+34)(32-34+30)(34-30+32)}{8\cdot 32}=\boxed{126}.\end{align*}

See Also

2018 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 12
Followed by
Problem 14
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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