Difference between revisions of "2018 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 24"

 
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{{duplicate|[[2018 AMC 12A Problems|2018 AMC 12A #18]] and [[2018 AMC 10A Problems|2018 AMC 10A #24]]}}
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== Problem ==
 
== Problem ==
  
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</math>
 
</math>
  
== Solution ==
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== Solution 1 ==
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Let <math>BC = a</math>, <math>BG = x</math>, <math>GC = y</math>, and the length of the perpendicular to <math>BC</math> through <math>A</math> be <math>h</math>. By angle bisector theorem, we have that <cmath>\frac{50}{x} = \frac{10}{y},</cmath> where <math>y = -x+a</math>. Therefore substituting we have that <math>BG=\frac{5a}{6}</math>. By similar triangles, we have that <math>DF=\frac{5a}{12}</math>, and the height of this trapezoid is <math>\frac{h}{2}</math>. Then, we have that <math>\frac{ah}{2}=120</math>. We wish to compute <math>\frac{5a}{8}\cdot\frac{h}{2}</math>, and we have that it is <math>\boxed{75}</math> by substituting.
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==  Solution 2 ==
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For this problem, we have <math>\triangle{ADE}\sim\triangle{ABC}</math> because of SAS and <math>DE = \frac{BC}{2}</math>. Therefore, <math>\bigtriangleup ADE</math> is a quarter of the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ABC</math>, which is <math>30</math>. Subsequently, we can compute the area of quadrilateral <math>BDEC</math> to be <math>120 - 30 = 90</math>. Using the angle bisector theorem in the same fashion as the previous problem, we get that <math>\overline{BG}</math> is <math>5</math> times the length of <math>\overline{GC}</math>. We want the larger piece, as described by the problem. Because the heights are identical, one area is <math>5</math> times the other, and <math>\frac{5}{6} \cdot 90 = \boxed{75}</math>.
  
By angle bisector theorem, <math>BG=\frac{5a}{6}</math>. By similar triangles, <math>DF=\frac{5a}{12}</math>, and the height of this trapezoid is <math>\frac{h}{2}</math>, where <math>h</math> is the length of the altitude to <math>BC</math>. Then <math>\frac{ah}{2}=120</math> and we wish to compute <math>\frac{5a}{8}\cdot\frac{h}{2}=\boxed{75}</math>. (trumpeter)
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== Solution 3 ==
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The area of <math>\bigtriangleup ABG</math> to the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ACG</math> is <math>5:1</math> by Law of Sines. So the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ABG</math> is <math>100</math>. Since <math>\overline{DE}</math> is the midsegment of <math>\bigtriangleup ABC</math>, so <math>\overline{DF}</math> is the midsegment of <math>\bigtriangleup ABG</math> . So the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ADF</math>  to the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ABG</math> is <math>1:4</math> , so the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ACG</math> is <math>25</math>, by similar triangles. Therefore the area of quad <math>FDBG</math> is <math>100-25=\boxed{75}</math>
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==Solution 4 ==
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The area of quadrilateral <math>FDBG</math> is the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ABG</math> minus the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ADF</math>. Notice, <math>\overline{DE} || \overline{BC}</math>, so <math>\bigtriangleup ABG \sim \bigtriangleup ADF</math>, and since <math>\overline{AD}:\overline{AB}=1:2</math>, the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ADF:\bigtriangleup ABG=(1:2)^2=1:4</math>. Given that the area of <math>\bigtriangleup ABC</math> is <math>120</math>, using <math>\frac{bh}{2}</math> on side <math>AB</math> yields <math>\frac{50h}{2}=120\implies h=\frac{240}{50}=\frac{24}{5}</math>. Using the Angle Bisector Theorem, <math>\overline{BG}:\overline{BC}=50:(10+50)=5:6</math>, so the height of <math>\bigtriangleup ABG: \bigtriangleup ACB=5:6</math>. Therefore our answer is <math>\big[ FDBG\big] = \big[ABG\big]-\big[ ADF\big] = \big[ ABG\big]\big(1-\frac{1}{4}\big)=\frac{3}{4}\cdot \frac{bh}{2}=\frac{3}{8}\cdot 50\cdot \frac{5}{6}\cdot \frac{24}{5}=\frac{3}{8}\cdot 200=\boxed{75}</math>
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==Solution 5: Trig ==
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We try to find the area of quadrilateral <math>FDBG</math> by subtracting the area outside the quadrilateral but inside triangle <math>ABC</math>. Note that the area of <math>\triangle ADE</math> is equal  to <math>\frac{1}{2} \cdot 25 \cdot 5 \cdot \sin{A}</math> and the area of triangle <math>ABC</math> is equal to <math>\frac{1}{2} \cdot 50 \cdot 10 \cdot \sin A</math>. The ratio <math>\frac{[ADE]}{[ABC]}</math> is thus equal to <math>\frac{1}{4}</math> and the area of triangle <math>ADE</math> is <math>\frac{1}{4} \cdot 120 = 30</math>. Let side <math>BC</math> be equal to <math>6x</math>, then <math>BG = 5x, GC = x</math> by the angle bisector theorem. Similarly, we find the area of triangle <math>AGC</math> to be <math>\frac{1}{2} \cdot 10 \cdot x \cdot \sin C</math> and the area of triangle <math>ABC</math> to be <math>\frac{1}{2} \cdot 6x \cdot 10 \cdot \sin C</math>. A ratio between these two triangles yields <math>\frac{[ACG]}{[ABC]} = \frac{x}{6x} = \frac{1}{6}</math>, so <math>[AGC] = 20</math>. Now we just need to find the area of triangle <math>AFE</math> and subtract it from the combined areas of <math>[ADE]</math> and <math>[ACG]</math>, since we count it twice. Note that the angle bisector theorem also applies for <math>\triangle ADE</math> and <math>\frac{AE}{AD} = \frac{1}{5}</math>, so thus <math>\frac{EF}{ED} = \frac{1}{6}</math> and we find <math>[AFE] = \frac{1}{6} \cdot 30 = 5</math>, and the area outside <math>FDBG</math> must be <math> [ADE] + [AGC] - [AFE] = 30 + 20 - 5 = 45</math>, and we finally find  <math>[FDBG] = [ABC] - 45 = 120 -45 = \boxed{75}</math>, and we are done.
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==Solution 6: Areas ==
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<asy>
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draw((0,0)--(1,3)--(5,0)--cycle);
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draw((0,0)--(2,2.25));
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draw((0.5,1.5)--(2.5,0));
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label("A",(0,0),SW);
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label("B",(5,0),SE);
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label("C",(1,3),N);
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label("G",(2,2.25),NE);
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label("D",(2.5,0),S);
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label("E",(0.5,1.5),NW);
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label("3Y",(2.5,0.75),N);
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label("Y",(1,0.2),N);
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label("X",(0.5,0.5),N);
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label("3X",(1.25,1.75),N);
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</asy>
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Give triangle <math>AEF</math> area X. Then, by similarity, since <math>\frac{AC}{AE} = \frac{2}{1}</math>, <math>ACG</math> has area 4X. Thus, <math>FGCE</math> has area 3X.
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Doing the same for triangle <math>AGB</math>, we get that triangle <math>AFD</math> has area Y and quadrilateral <math>GFDB</math> has area 3Y. Since <math>AEF</math> has the same height as <math>AFD</math>, the ratios of the areas is equal to the ratios of the bases. Because of the Angle Bisector Theorem, <math>\frac{CG}{GD} = \frac{1}{5}</math>. So, <math>\frac{[AEF]}{[AFD]} = \frac{1}{5}</math>. Since <math>AEF</math> has area X, we can write the equation 5X = Y and substitute 5X for Y.
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<asy>
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draw((0,0)--(1,3)--(5,0)--cycle);
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draw((0,0)--(2,2.25));
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draw((0.5,1.5)--(2.5,0));
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label("A",(0,0),SW);
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label("B",(5,0),SE);
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label("C",(1,3),N);
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label("G",(2,2.25),NE);
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label("D",(2.5,0),S);
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label("E",(0.5,1.5),NW);
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label("15X",(2.5,0.75),N);
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label("5X",(1,0.2),N);
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label("X",(0.5,0.5),N);
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label("3X",(1.25,1.75),N);
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</asy>
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Now we can solve for X by adding up all the sums. X + 3X + 5X + 15X = 120, so X = 5. Since we want to find <math>GFDB</math>, we substitute 5 for 15X to get <math>\boxed{75}</math>.
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<math>\sim</math>krishkhushi09
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== Video Solution by Richard Rusczyk ==
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https://artofproblemsolving.com/videos/amc/2018amc10a/469
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~ dolphin7
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
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{{AMC12 box|year=2018|ab=A|num-b=17|num-a=19}}
 
{{AMC12 box|year=2018|ab=A|num-b=17|num-a=19}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}
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 +
[[Category:Intermediate Geometry Problems]]

Latest revision as of 16:56, 30 December 2020

The following problem is from both the 2018 AMC 12A #18 and 2018 AMC 10A #24, so both problems redirect to this page.

Problem

Triangle $ABC$ with $AB=50$ and $AC=10$ has area $120$. Let $D$ be the midpoint of $\overline{AB}$, and let $E$ be the midpoint of $\overline{AC}$. The angle bisector of $\angle BAC$ intersects $\overline{DE}$ and $\overline{BC}$ at $F$ and $G$, respectively. What is the area of quadrilateral $FDBG$?

$\textbf{(A) }60 \qquad \textbf{(B) }65 \qquad \textbf{(C) }70 \qquad \textbf{(D) }75 \qquad \textbf{(E) }80 \qquad$

Solution 1

Let $BC = a$, $BG = x$, $GC = y$, and the length of the perpendicular to $BC$ through $A$ be $h$. By angle bisector theorem, we have that \[\frac{50}{x} = \frac{10}{y},\] where $y = -x+a$. Therefore substituting we have that $BG=\frac{5a}{6}$. By similar triangles, we have that $DF=\frac{5a}{12}$, and the height of this trapezoid is $\frac{h}{2}$. Then, we have that $\frac{ah}{2}=120$. We wish to compute $\frac{5a}{8}\cdot\frac{h}{2}$, and we have that it is $\boxed{75}$ by substituting.

Solution 2

For this problem, we have $\triangle{ADE}\sim\triangle{ABC}$ because of SAS and $DE = \frac{BC}{2}$. Therefore, $\bigtriangleup ADE$ is a quarter of the area of $\bigtriangleup ABC$, which is $30$. Subsequently, we can compute the area of quadrilateral $BDEC$ to be $120 - 30 = 90$. Using the angle bisector theorem in the same fashion as the previous problem, we get that $\overline{BG}$ is $5$ times the length of $\overline{GC}$. We want the larger piece, as described by the problem. Because the heights are identical, one area is $5$ times the other, and $\frac{5}{6} \cdot 90 = \boxed{75}$.

Solution 3

The area of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ to the area of $\bigtriangleup ACG$ is $5:1$ by Law of Sines. So the area of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ is $100$. Since $\overline{DE}$ is the midsegment of $\bigtriangleup ABC$, so $\overline{DF}$ is the midsegment of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ . So the area of $\bigtriangleup ADF$ to the area of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ is $1:4$ , so the area of $\bigtriangleup ACG$ is $25$, by similar triangles. Therefore the area of quad $FDBG$ is $100-25=\boxed{75}$

Solution 4

The area of quadrilateral $FDBG$ is the area of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ minus the area of $\bigtriangleup ADF$. Notice, $\overline{DE} || \overline{BC}$, so $\bigtriangleup ABG \sim \bigtriangleup ADF$, and since $\overline{AD}:\overline{AB}=1:2$, the area of $\bigtriangleup ADF:\bigtriangleup ABG=(1:2)^2=1:4$. Given that the area of $\bigtriangleup ABC$ is $120$, using $\frac{bh}{2}$ on side $AB$ yields $\frac{50h}{2}=120\implies h=\frac{240}{50}=\frac{24}{5}$. Using the Angle Bisector Theorem, $\overline{BG}:\overline{BC}=50:(10+50)=5:6$, so the height of $\bigtriangleup ABG: \bigtriangleup ACB=5:6$. Therefore our answer is $\big[ FDBG\big] = \big[ABG\big]-\big[ ADF\big] = \big[ ABG\big]\big(1-\frac{1}{4}\big)=\frac{3}{4}\cdot \frac{bh}{2}=\frac{3}{8}\cdot 50\cdot \frac{5}{6}\cdot \frac{24}{5}=\frac{3}{8}\cdot 200=\boxed{75}$

Solution 5: Trig

We try to find the area of quadrilateral $FDBG$ by subtracting the area outside the quadrilateral but inside triangle $ABC$. Note that the area of $\triangle ADE$ is equal to $\frac{1}{2} \cdot 25 \cdot 5 \cdot \sin{A}$ and the area of triangle $ABC$ is equal to $\frac{1}{2} \cdot 50 \cdot 10 \cdot \sin A$. The ratio $\frac{[ADE]}{[ABC]}$ is thus equal to $\frac{1}{4}$ and the area of triangle $ADE$ is $\frac{1}{4} \cdot 120 = 30$. Let side $BC$ be equal to $6x$, then $BG = 5x, GC = x$ by the angle bisector theorem. Similarly, we find the area of triangle $AGC$ to be $\frac{1}{2} \cdot 10 \cdot x \cdot \sin C$ and the area of triangle $ABC$ to be $\frac{1}{2} \cdot 6x \cdot 10 \cdot \sin C$. A ratio between these two triangles yields $\frac{[ACG]}{[ABC]} = \frac{x}{6x} = \frac{1}{6}$, so $[AGC] = 20$. Now we just need to find the area of triangle $AFE$ and subtract it from the combined areas of $[ADE]$ and $[ACG]$, since we count it twice. Note that the angle bisector theorem also applies for $\triangle ADE$ and $\frac{AE}{AD} = \frac{1}{5}$, so thus $\frac{EF}{ED} = \frac{1}{6}$ and we find $[AFE] = \frac{1}{6} \cdot 30 = 5$, and the area outside $FDBG$ must be $[ADE] + [AGC] - [AFE] = 30 + 20 - 5 = 45$, and we finally find $[FDBG] = [ABC] - 45 = 120 -45 = \boxed{75}$, and we are done.

Solution 6: Areas

[asy] draw((0,0)--(1,3)--(5,0)--cycle); draw((0,0)--(2,2.25)); draw((0.5,1.5)--(2.5,0)); label("A",(0,0),SW); label("B",(5,0),SE); label("C",(1,3),N); label("G",(2,2.25),NE); label("D",(2.5,0),S); label("E",(0.5,1.5),NW); label("3Y",(2.5,0.75),N); label("Y",(1,0.2),N); label("X",(0.5,0.5),N); label("3X",(1.25,1.75),N); [/asy] Give triangle $AEF$ area X. Then, by similarity, since $\frac{AC}{AE} = \frac{2}{1}$, $ACG$ has area 4X. Thus, $FGCE$ has area 3X. Doing the same for triangle $AGB$, we get that triangle $AFD$ has area Y and quadrilateral $GFDB$ has area 3Y. Since $AEF$ has the same height as $AFD$, the ratios of the areas is equal to the ratios of the bases. Because of the Angle Bisector Theorem, $\frac{CG}{GD} = \frac{1}{5}$. So, $\frac{[AEF]}{[AFD]} = \frac{1}{5}$. Since $AEF$ has area X, we can write the equation 5X = Y and substitute 5X for Y. [asy] draw((0,0)--(1,3)--(5,0)--cycle); draw((0,0)--(2,2.25)); draw((0.5,1.5)--(2.5,0)); label("A",(0,0),SW); label("B",(5,0),SE); label("C",(1,3),N); label("G",(2,2.25),NE); label("D",(2.5,0),S); label("E",(0.5,1.5),NW); label("15X",(2.5,0.75),N); label("5X",(1,0.2),N); label("X",(0.5,0.5),N); label("3X",(1.25,1.75),N); [/asy] Now we can solve for X by adding up all the sums. X + 3X + 5X + 15X = 120, so X = 5. Since we want to find $GFDB$, we substitute 5 for 15X to get $\boxed{75}$. $\sim$krishkhushi09

Video Solution by Richard Rusczyk

https://artofproblemsolving.com/videos/amc/2018amc10a/469

~ dolphin7

See Also

2018 AMC 10A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 23
Followed by
Problem 25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions
2018 AMC 12A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 17
Followed by
Problem 19
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

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