# 2018 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 20

## Problem

A scanning code consists of a $7 \times 7$ grid of squares, with some of its squares colored black and the rest colored white. There must be at least one square of each color in this grid of $49$ squares. A scanning code is called $\textit{symmetric}$ if its look does not change when the entire square is rotated by a multiple of $90 ^{\circ}$ counterclockwise around its center, nor when it is reflected across a line joining opposite corners or a line joining midpoints of opposite sides. What is the total number of possible symmetric scanning codes?

$\textbf{(A)} \text{ 510} \qquad \textbf{(B)} \text{ 1022} \qquad \textbf{(C)} \text{ 8190} \qquad \textbf{(D)} \text{ 8192} \qquad \textbf{(E)} \text{ 65,534}$

## Solution

### Solution 1

Draw a $7 \times 7$ square.

$\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|} \hline K & J & H & G & H & J & K \\ \hline J & F & E & D & E & F & J \\ \hline H & E & C & B & C & E & H \\ \hline G & D & B & A & B & D & G \\ \hline H & E & C & B & C & E & H \\ \hline J & F & E & D & E & F & J \\ \hline K & J & H & G & H & J & K \\ \hline \end{tabular}$

Start from the center and label all protruding cells symmetrically. (Note that "I" is left out of this labelling, so there are only 10 labels, not 11, as ending in K would suggest!)

More specifically, since there are $4$ given lines of symmetry ($2$ diagonals, $1$ vertical, $1$ horizontal) and they split the plot into $8$ equivalent sections, we can take just one-eighth and study it in particular. Each of these sections has $10$ distinct sub-squares, whether partially or in full. So since each can be colored either white or black, we choose $2^{10}=1024$ but then subtract the $2$ cases where all are white or all are black. That leaves us with $\fbox{\textbf{(B)} \text{ 1022}}$.

There are only ten squares we get to actually choose, and two independent choices for each, for a total of $2^{10} = 1024$ codes. Two codes must be subtracted (due to the rule that there must be at least one square of each color) for an answer of $\fbox{\textbf{(B)} \text{ 1022}}$.

Note that this problem is very similar to the 1996 AIME Problem 7 https://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php/1996_AIME_Problems/Problem_7.

### Solution 2

$[asy] size(100pt); draw((1,0)--(8,0),linewidth(0.5)); draw((1,2)--(6,2),linewidth(0.5)); draw((1,4)--(4,4),linewidth(0.5)); draw((1,6)--(2,6),linewidth(0.5)); draw((2,6)--(2,0),linewidth(0.5)); draw((4,4)--(4,0),linewidth(0.5)); draw((6,2)--(6,0),linewidth(0.5)); draw((1,0)--(1,7),dashed+linewidth(0.5)); draw((1,7)--(8,0),dashed+linewidth(0.5)); [/asy]$

Imagine folding the scanning code along its lines of symmetry. There will be $10$ regions which you have control over coloring. Since we must subtract off $2$ cases for the all-black and all-white cases, the answer is $2^{10}-2=\boxed{\textbf{(B) } 1022.}$

### Solution 3

This $7 \times 7$ square drawn in Solution 1 satisfies the conditions given in the problem. Calculating the number of ways of coloring it will solve the problem.

$\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|} \hline K & J & H & G & H & J & K \\ \hline J & F & E & D & E & F & J \\ \hline H & E & C & B & C & E & H \\ \hline G & D & B & A & B & D & G \\ \hline H & E & C & B & C & E & H \\ \hline J & F & E & D & E & F & J \\ \hline K & J & H & G & H & J & K \\ \hline \end{tabular}$

In the grid, 10 letters are used: $A$, $B$, $C$, $D$, $E$, $F$, $G$, $H$, $J$, and $K$. Each of the letters must have its own color, either white or black. This means, for example, all $K$'s must have the same color for the grid to be symmetrical.

So there are $2^{10}$ ways to color the grid, including a completely black grid and a completely white grid. Since the grid must contain at least one square with each color, the number of ways is $2^{10}-2=1024-2=$ $\boxed{\textbf{(B) } 1022}$.