# Difference between revisions of "2019 AIME II Problems/Problem 10"

## Problem 10

There is a unique angle $\theta$ between $0^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}$ such that for nonnegative integers $n$, the value of $\tan{\left(2^{n}\theta\right)}$ is positive when $n$ is a multiple of $3$, and negative otherwise. The degree measure of $\theta$ is $\tfrac{p}{q}$, where $p$ and $q$ are relatively prime integers. Find $p+q$.

## Solution 1

Note that if $\tan \theta$ is positive, then $\theta$ is in the first or third quadrant, so $0^{\circ} < \theta < 90^{\circ} \pmod{180^{\circ}}$. Also notice that the only way $\tan{\left(2^{n}\theta\right)}$ can be positive for all $n$ that are multiples of $3$ is when $2^0\theta, 2^3\theta, 2^6\theta$, etc. are all the same value $\pmod{180^{\circ}}$. This happens if $8\theta = \theta \pmod{180^{\circ}}$, so $7\theta = 0^{\circ} \pmod{180^{\circ}}$. Therefore, the only possible values of theta between $0^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}$ are $\frac{180}{7}^{\circ}$, $\frac{360}{7}^{\circ}$, and $\frac{540}{7}^{\circ}$. However $\frac{180}{7}^{\circ}$ does not work since $\tan{2 \cdot \frac{180}{7}^{\circ}}$ is positive, and $\frac{360}{7}^{\circ}$ does not work because $\tan{4 \cdot \frac{360}{7}^{\circ}}$ is positive. Thus, $\theta = \frac{540}{7}^{\circ}$. $540 + 7 = \boxed{547}$.

## Solution 2

As in the previous solution, we note that $\tan \theta$ is positive when $\theta$ is in the first or third quadrant. In order for $\tan\left(2^n\theta\right)$ to be positive for all $n$ divisible by $3$, we must have $\theta$, $2^3\theta$, $2^6\theta$, etc to lie in the first or second quadrants. We already know that $\theta\in(0,90)$. We can keep track of the range of $2^n\theta$ for each $n$ by considering the portion in the desired quadrants, which gives $$n=1 \implies (90,180)$$ $$n=2\implies (270,360)$$ $$n=3 \implies (180,270)$$ $$n=4 \implies (90,180)$$ $$n=5\implies(270,360)$$ $$n=6 \implies (180,270)$$ $$\cdots$$ at which point we realize a pattern emerging. Specifically, the intervals repeat every $3$ after $n=1$. We can use these repeating intervals to determine the desired value of $\theta$ since the upper and lower bounds will converge to such a value (since it is unique, as indicated in the problem). Let's keep track of the lower bound.

Initially, the lower bound is $0$ (at $n=0$), then increases to $\frac{90}{2}=45$ at $n=1$. This then becomes $45+\frac{45}{2}$ at $n=2$, $45+\frac{45}{2}$ at $n=3$, $45+\frac{45}{2}+\frac{45}{2^3}$ at $n=4$,$45+\frac{45}{2}+\frac{45}{2^3}+\frac{45}{2^4}$ at $n=5$. Due to the observed pattern of the intervals, the lower bound follows a partial geometric series. Hence, as $n$ approaches infinity, the lower bound converges to $$\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\left(45+\frac{45}{2}\right)\cdot \left(\frac{1}{8}\right)^k=\frac{45+\frac{45}{2}}{1-\frac{1}{8}}=\frac{\frac{135}{2}}{\frac{7}{8}}=\frac{540}{7}\implies p+q=540+7=\boxed{547}$$-ktong