Difference between revisions of "2019 AIME II Problems/Problem 2"
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Lily pads <math>1,2,3,\ldots</math> lie in a row on a pond. A frog makes a sequence of jumps starting on pad <math>1</math>. From any pad <math>k</math> the frog jumps to either pad <math>k+1</math> or pad <math>k+2</math> chosen randomly with probability <math>\tfrac{1}{2}</math> and independently of other jumps. The probability that the frog visits pad <math>7</math> is <math>\tfrac{p}{q}</math>, where <math>p</math> and <math>q</math> are relatively prime positive integers. Find <math>p+q</math>. | Lily pads <math>1,2,3,\ldots</math> lie in a row on a pond. A frog makes a sequence of jumps starting on pad <math>1</math>. From any pad <math>k</math> the frog jumps to either pad <math>k+1</math> or pad <math>k+2</math> chosen randomly with probability <math>\tfrac{1}{2}</math> and independently of other jumps. The probability that the frog visits pad <math>7</math> is <math>\tfrac{p}{q}</math>, where <math>p</math> and <math>q</math> are relatively prime positive integers. Find <math>p+q</math>. | ||
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<math>43 + 64 = \boxed{107}</math>. | <math>43 + 64 = \boxed{107}</math>. | ||
− | ==Solution 2(Casework)== | + | ==Solution 2 (Casework)== |
Define a one jump to be a jump from <math>k</math> to <math>k + 1</math> and a two jump to be a jump from <math>k</math> to <math>k + 2</math>. | Define a one jump to be a jump from <math>k</math> to <math>k + 1</math> and a two jump to be a jump from <math>k</math> to <math>k + 2</math>. | ||
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- pi_is_3.14 | - pi_is_3.14 | ||
− | ==Solution 3 | + | ==Solution 3== |
Let <math>P_n</math> be the probability that the frog lands on lily pad <math>n</math>. The probability that the frog never lands on pad <math>n</math> is <math>\frac{1}{2}P_{n-1}</math>, so <math>1-P_n=\frac{1}{2}P_{n-1}</math>. This rearranges to <math>P_n=1-\frac{1}{2}P_{n-1}</math>, and we know that <math>P_1=1</math>, so we can compute <math>P_7</math>. | Let <math>P_n</math> be the probability that the frog lands on lily pad <math>n</math>. The probability that the frog never lands on pad <math>n</math> is <math>\frac{1}{2}P_{n-1}</math>, so <math>1-P_n=\frac{1}{2}P_{n-1}</math>. This rearranges to <math>P_n=1-\frac{1}{2}P_{n-1}</math>, and we know that <math>P_1=1</math>, so we can compute <math>P_7</math>. | ||
Latest revision as of 01:29, 16 February 2021
Contents
Problem
Lily pads lie in a row on a pond. A frog makes a sequence of jumps starting on pad . From any pad the frog jumps to either pad or pad chosen randomly with probability and independently of other jumps. The probability that the frog visits pad is , where and are relatively prime positive integers. Find .
Solution
Let be the probability the frog visits pad starting from pad . Then , , and for all integers . Working our way down, we find .
Solution 2 (Casework)
Define a one jump to be a jump from to and a two jump to be a jump from to .
Case 1: (6 one jumps)
Case 2: (4 one jumps and 1 two jumps)
Case 3: (2 one jumps and 2 two jumps)
Case 4: (3 two jumps)
Summing the probabilities gives us so the answer is .
- pi_is_3.14
Solution 3
Let be the probability that the frog lands on lily pad . The probability that the frog never lands on pad is , so . This rearranges to , and we know that , so we can compute .
We calculate to be , meaning that our answer is .
Solution 4
For any point , let the probability that the frog lands on lily pad be . The frog can land at lily pad with either a double jump from lily pad or a single jump from lily pad . Since the probability when the frog is at to make a double jump is and same for when it's at , the recursion is just . Using the fact that , and , we find that .
-bradleyguo
Video Solution (2 Solutions)
https://youtu.be/wopflrvUN2c?t=652
~ pi_is_3.14
See Also
2019 AIME II (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | ||
Preceded by Problem 1 |
Followed by Problem 3 | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 | ||
All AIME Problems and Solutions |
The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions.