# 2019 AIME I Problems/Problem 6

## Problem 6

In convex quadrilateral $KLMN$ side $\overline{MN}$ is perpendicular to diagonal $\overline{KM}$, side $\overline{KL}$ is perpendicular to diagonal $\overline{LN}$, $MN = 65$, and $KL = 28$. The line through $L$ perpendicular to side $\overline{KN}$ intersects diagonal $\overline{KM}$ at $O$ with $KO = 8$. Find $MO$.

## Solution 1 (Simplicity)

Note that $KLMN$ is cyclic with diameter $KN$ since $\angle KLN = \angle KMN = \frac{\pi}{2}$. Also, note that we have $\triangle KML \sim \triangle KLO$ by SS similarity.

We see this by $\angle LKM = \angle OKL$ and $\angle KLO = \angle KML$. The latter equality can be seen if we extend $LP$ to point $L'$ on $(KLMN)$. We know $LK = KL'$ from which it follows $\angle KLO = \angle KML$.

Let $MO = x$. By $\triangle KML \sim \triangle KLO$ we have

$$\frac{KL}{KO} = \frac{KM}{KL} \Rightarrow \frac{28}{8} = \frac{x+8}{28}.$$

$$98 = x + 8 \Rightarrow x = \boxed{090}.$$

- gregwwl

## Solution 2 (Trig)

Let $\angle MKN=\alpha$ and $\angle LNK=\beta$. Note $\angle KLP=\beta$.

Then, $KP=28\sin\beta=8\cos\alpha$. Furthermore, $KN=\frac{65}{\sin\alpha}=\frac{28}{\sin\beta} \Rightarrow 65\sin\beta=28\sin\alpha$.

Dividing the equations gives $$\frac{65}{28}=\frac{28\sin\alpha}{8\cos\alpha}=\frac{7}{2}\tan\alpha\Rightarrow \tan\alpha=\frac{65}{98}$$

Thus, $MK=\frac{MN}{\tan\alpha}=98$, so $MO=MK-KO=\boxed{090}$.

## Solution 3 (Similar triangles)

$[asy] size(250); real h = sqrt(98^2+65^2); real l = sqrt(h^2-28^2); pair K = (0,0); pair N = (h, 0); pair M = ((98^2)/h, (98*65)/h); pair L = ((28^2)/h, (28*l)/h); pair P = ((28^2)/h, 0); pair O = ((28^2)/h, (8*65)/h); draw(K--L--N); draw(K--M--N--cycle); draw(L--M); label("K", K, SW); label("L", L, NW); label("M", M, NE); label("N", N, SE); draw(L--P); label("P", P, S); dot(O); label("O", shift((1,1))*O, NNE); label("28", scale(1/2)*L, W); label("65", ((M.x+N.x)/2, (M.y+N.y)/2), NE); [/asy]$

First, let $P$ be the intersection of $LO$ and $KN$ as shown above. Note that $m\angle KPL = 90^{\circ}$ as given in the problem. Since $\angle KPL \cong \angle KLN$ and $\angle PKL \cong \angle LKN$, $\triangle PKL \sim \triangle LKN$ by AA similarity. Similarly, $\triangle KMN \sim \triangle KPO$. Using these similarities we see that $$\frac{KP}{KL} = \frac{KL}{KN}$$ $$KP = \frac{KL^2}{KN} = \frac{28^2}{KN} = \frac{784}{KN}$$ and $$\frac{KP}{KO} = \frac{KM}{KN}$$ $$KP = \frac{KO \cdot KM}{KN} = \frac{8\cdot KM}{KN}$$ Combining the two equations, we get $$\frac{8\cdot KM}{KN} = \frac{784}{KN}$$ $$8 \cdot KM = 28^2$$ $$KM = 98$$ Since $KM = KO + MO$, we get $MO = 98 -8 = \boxed{090}$.

## Solution 4 (Similar triangles, orthocenters)

Extend $KL$ and $NM$ past $L$ and $M$ respectively to meet at $P$. Let $H$ be the intersection of diagonals $KM$ and $LN$ (this is the orthocenter of $\triangle KNP$).

As $\triangle KOL \sim \triangle KHP$ (as $LO \parallel PH$, using the fact that $H$ is the orthocenter), we may let $OH = 8k$ and $LP = 28k$.

Then using similarity with triangles $\triangle KLH$ and $\triangle KMP$ we have

$$\frac{28}{8+8k} = \frac{8+8k+HM}{28+28k}$$

Cross-multiplying and dividing by $4+4k$ gives $2(8+8k+HM) = 28 \cdot 7 = 196$ so $MO = 8k + HM = \frac{196}{2} - 8 = \boxed{090}$. (Solution by scrabbler94)

## Solution 5 (5-second PoP)

$[asy] size(8cm); pair K, L, M, NN, X, O; K=(-sqrt(98^2+65^2)/2, 0); NN=(sqrt(98^2+65^2)/2, 0); L=sqrt(98^2+65^2)/2*dir(180-2*aSin(28/sqrt(98^2+65^2))); M=sqrt(98^2+65^2)/2*dir(2*aSin(65/sqrt(98^2+65^2))); X=foot(L, K, NN); O=extension(L, X, K, M); draw(K -- L -- M -- NN -- K -- M); draw(L -- NN); draw(arc((K+NN)/2, NN, K)); draw(L -- X, dashed); draw(arc((O+NN)/2, NN, X), dashed); draw(rightanglemark(K, L, NN, 100)); draw(rightanglemark(K, M, NN, 100)); draw(rightanglemark(L, X, NN, 100)); dot("K", K, SW); dot("L", L, unit(L)); dot("M", M, unit(M)); dot("N", NN, SE); dot("X", X, S); [/asy]$ Notice that $KLMN$ is inscribed in the circle with diameter $\overline{KN}$ and $XOMN$ is inscribed in the circle with diameter $\overline{ON}$. Furthermore, $(XLN)$ is tangent to $\overline{KL}$. Then, $$KO\cdot KM=KX\cdot KN=KL^2\implies KM=\frac{28^2}{8}=98,$$and $MO=KM-KO=\boxed{090}$.

(Solution by TheUltimate123)