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2019 AMC 10B Problems

Revision as of 13:33, 14 February 2019 by Nikbot05 (talk | contribs) (Problem 5)

Problem 1

Alicia had two containers. The first was $\tfrac{5}{6}$ full of water and the second was empty. She poured all the water from the first container into the second container, at which point the second container was $\tfrac{3}{4}$ full of water. What is the ratio of the volume of the first container to the volume of the second container?

$\textbf{(A) } \frac{5}{8} \qquad \textbf{(B) } \frac{4}{5} \qquad \textbf{(C) } \frac{7}{8} \qquad \textbf{(D) } \frac{9}{10} \qquad \textbf{(E) } \frac{11}{12}$

Solution

Problem 2

Consider the statement, "If $n$ is not prime, then $n-2$ is prime." Which of the following values of $n$ is a counterexample to this statement.

$\textbf{(A) } 11 \qquad \textbf{(B) } 15 \qquad \textbf{(C) } 19 \qquad \textbf{(D) } 21 \qquad \textbf{(E) } 27$

Solution

Problem 3

In a high school with $500$ students, $40\%$ of the seniors play a musical instrument, while $30\%$ of the non-seniors do not play a musical instrument. In all, $46.8\%$ of the students do not play a musical instrument. How many non-seniors play a musical instrument?

$\textbf{(A) } 66 \qquad\textbf{(B) } 154 \qquad\textbf{(C) } 186 \qquad\textbf{(D) } 220 \qquad\textbf{(E) } 266$

Solution

Problem 4

All lines with equation $ax+by=c$ such that $a,b,c$ form an arithmetic progression pass through a common point. What are the coordinates of that point?

$\textbf{(A) } (-1,2) \qquad\textbf{(B) } (0,1) \qquad\textbf{(C) } (1,-2) \qquad\textbf{(D) } (1,0) \qquad\textbf{(E) } (1,2)$

Solution

Problem 5

Triangle $ABC$ lies in the first quadrant. Points $A$, $B$, and $C$ are reflected across the line $y=x$ to points $A'$, $B'$, and $C'$, respectively. Assume that none of the vertices of the triangle lie on the line $y=x$. Which of the following statements is not always true?

$\textbf{(A) }Triangle$A'B'C'$lies in the first quadrant\qquad\textbf{(B) }Triangles$ABC$and$A'B'C'$have the same area.\qquad\textbf{(C) }The slope of line$AA'$is$-1$.\qquad\textbf{(D) }The slopes of lines$AA'$and$CC'$are the same.\qquad\textbf{(E) }Lines$AB$and$A'B'$are perpendicular to each other.$

Solution

Problem 6

There is a real $n$ such that $(n+1)! + (n+2)! = n! \cdot 440$. What is the sum of the digits of $n$?

$\textbf{(A) }3\qquad\textbf{(B) }8\qquad\textbf{(C) }10\qquad\textbf{(D) }11\qquad\textbf{(E) }12$

Solution

Problem 7

Each piece of candy in a store costs a whole number of cents. Casper has exactly enough money to buy either 12 pieces of red candy, 14 pieces of green candy, 15 pieces of blue candy, or $n$ pieces of purple candy. A piece of purple candy costs 20 cents. What is the smallest possible value of $n$?

$\textbf{(A) } 18 \qquad \textbf{(B) } 21 \qquad \textbf{(C) } 24\qquad \textbf{(D) } 25 \qquad \textbf{(E) } 28$

Solution

Problem 8

Solution

Problem 9

The function $f$ is defined by \[f(x) = \lfloor|x|\rfloor - |\lfloor x \rfloor|\]for all real numbers $x$, where $\lfloor r \rfloor$ denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to the real number $r$. What is the range of $f$?

$\textbf{(A) } \{-1, 0\} \qquad\textbf{(B) } \text{The set of nonpositive integers} \qquad\textbf{(C) } \{-1, 0, 1\} \qquad\textbf{(D) } \{0\} \qquad\textbf{(E) } \text{The set of nonnegative integers}$

Solution

Problem 10

In a given plane, points $A$ and $B$ are $10$ units apart. How many points $C$ are there in the plane such that the perimeter of $\triangle ABC$ is $50$ units and the area of $\triangle ABC$ is $100$ square units?

$\textbf{(A) }0\qquad\textbf{(B) }2\qquad\textbf{(C) }4\qquad\textbf{(D) }8\qquad\textbf{(E) }\text{infinitely many}$

Solution

Problem 11

Solution

Problem 12

What is the greatest possible sum of the digits in the base-seven representation of a positive integer less than $2019$?

$\textbf{(A) } 11 \qquad\textbf{(B) } 14 \qquad\textbf{(C) } 22 \qquad\textbf{(D) } 23 \qquad\textbf{(E) } 27$

Solution

Problem 13

What is the sum of all real numbers $x$ for which the median of the numbers $4,6,8,17,$ and $x$ is equal to the mean of those five numbers?

$\textbf{(A) } -5 \qquad\textbf{(B) } 0 \qquad\textbf{(C) } 5 \qquad\textbf{(D) } \frac{15}{4} \qquad\textbf{(E) } \frac{35}{4}$

Solution

Problem 14

Solution

Problem 15

Solution

Problem 16

In $\triangle ABC$ with a right angle at $C,$ point $D$ lies in the interior of $\overline{AB}$ and point $E$ lies in the interior of $\overline{BC}$ so that $AC=CD,$ $DE=EB,$ and the ratio $AC:DE=4:3.$ What is the ratio $AD:DB?$

$\textbf{(A) } 2:3 \qquad\textbf{(B) } 2:\sqrt{5} \qquad\textbf{(C) } 1:1 \qquad\textbf{(D) } 3:\sqrt{5} \qquad\textbf{(E) } 3:2$

Solution

Problem 17

A red ball and a green ball are randomly and independently tossed into bins numbered with positive integers so that for each ball, the probability that it is tossed into bin $k$ is $2^{-k}$ for $k=1,2,3,\ldots.$ What is the probability that the red ball is tossed into a higher-numbered bin than the green ball?

$\textbf{(A) } \frac{1}{4} \qquad\textbf{(B) } \frac{2}{7} \qquad\textbf{(C) } \frac{1}{3} \qquad\textbf{(D) } \frac{3}{8} \qquad\textbf{(E) } \frac{3}{7}$

Solution

Problem 18

Henry decides one morning to do a workout, and he walks $\tfrac{3}{4}$ of the way from his home to his gym. The gym is $2$ kilometers away from Henry's home. At that point, he changes his mind and walks $\tfrac{3}{4}$ of the way from where he is back toward home. When he reaches that point, he changes his mind again and walks $\tfrac{3}{4}$ of the distance from there back toward the gym. If Henry keeps changing his mind when he has walked $\tfrac{3}{4}$ of the distance toward either the gym or home from the point where he last changed his mind, he will get very close to walking back and forth between a point $A$ kilometers from home and a point $B$ kilometers from home. What is $|A-B|$?

$\textbf{(A) } \frac{2}{3} \qquad \textbf{(B) } 1 \qquad \textbf{(C) } 1\frac{1}{5} \qquad \textbf{(D) } 1\frac{1}{4} \qquad \textbf{(E) } 1\frac{1}{2}$

Solution

Problem 19

Let $S$ be the set of all positive integer divisors of $100,000.$ How many numbers are the product of two distinct elements of $S?$

$\textbf{(A) }98\qquad\textbf{(B) }100\qquad\textbf{(C) }117\qquad\textbf{(D) }119\qquad\textbf{(E) }121$

Solution

Problem 20

As shown in the figure, line segment $\overline{AD}$ is trisected by points $B$ and $C$ so that $AB=BC=CD=2.$ Three semicircles of radius $1,$ $\overarc{AEB},\overarc{BFC},$ and $\overarc{CGD},$ have their diameters on $\overline{AD},$ and are tangent to line $EG$ at $E,F,$ and $G,$ respectively. A circle of radius $2$ has its center on $F.$ The area of the region inside the circle but outside the three semicircles, shaded in the figure, can be expressed in the form \[\frac{a}{b}\cdot\pi-\sqrt{c}+d,\]where $a,b,c,$ and $d$ are positive integers and $a$ and $b$ are relatively prime. What is $a+b+c+d$?

[asy] size(6cm); filldraw(circle((0,0),2), gray(0.7)); filldraw(arc((0,-1),1,0,180) -- cycle, gray(1.0)); filldraw(arc((-2,-1),1,0,180) -- cycle, gray(1.0)); filldraw(arc((2,-1),1,0,180) -- cycle, gray(1.0)); dot((-3,-1)); label("$A$",(-3,-1),S); dot((-2,0)); label("$E$",(-2,0),NW); dot((-1,-1)); label("$B$",(-1,-1),S); dot((0,0)); label("$F$",(0,0),N); dot((1,-1)); label("$C$",(1,-1), S); dot((2,0)); label("$G$", (2,0),NE); dot((3,-1)); label("$D$", (3,-1), S); [/asy] $\textbf{(A) } 13 \qquad\textbf{(B) } 14 \qquad\textbf{(C) } 15 \qquad\textbf{(D) } 16\qquad\textbf{(E) } 17$

Solution

Problem 21

Debra flips a fair coin repeatedly, keeping track of how many heads and how many tails she has seen in total, until she gets either two heads in a row or two tails in a row, at which point she stops flipping. What is the probability that she gets two heads in a row but she sees a second tail before she sees a second head?

$\textbf{(A) } \frac{1}{36} \qquad \textbf{(B) } \frac{1}{24} \qquad \textbf{(C) } \frac{1}{18} \qquad \textbf{(D) } \frac{1}{12} \qquad \textbf{(E) } \frac{1}{6}$

Solution

Problem 22

Solution

Problem 23

Points $A(6,13)$ and $B(12,11)$ lie on circle $\omega$ in the plane. Suppose that the tangent lines to $\omega$ at $A$ and $B$ intersect at a point on the $x$-axis. What is the area of $\omega$?

$\textbf{(A) }\frac{83\pi}{8}\qquad\textbf{(B) }\frac{21\pi}{2}\qquad\textbf{(C) } \frac{85\pi}{8}\qquad\textbf{(D) }\frac{43\pi}{4}\qquad\textbf{(E) }\frac{87\pi}{8}$

Solution

Problem 24

Define a sequence recursively by $x_0=5$ and \[x_{n+1}=\frac{x_n^2+5x_n+4}{x_n+6}\]for all nonnegative integers $n.$ Let $m$ be the least positive integer such that \[x_m\leq 4+\frac{1}{2^{20}}.\]In which of the following intervals does $m$ lie?

$\textbf{(A) } [9,26] \qquad\textbf{(B) } [27,80] \qquad\textbf{(C) } [81,242]\qquad\textbf{(D) } [243,728] \qquad\textbf{(E) } [729,\infty]$

Solution

Problem 25

How many sequences of $0$s and $1$s of length $19$ are there that begin with a $0$, end with a $0$, contain no two consecutive $0$s, and contain no three consecutive $1$s?

$\textbf{(A) }55\qquad\textbf{(B) }60\qquad\textbf{(C) }65\qquad\textbf{(D) }70\qquad\textbf{(E) }75$

Solution

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